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The Design Necessity 

A Casebook 

of Federally Initiated 

Projects in 

Visual Communications 

Interiors and 
Industrial Design 


Landscaped Environment 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 

The Design Necessity 

A Casebook Visual Communications Interiors and Architecture Landscaped Environment 

of Federally Initiated Industrial Design 

Projects in 

Ivan Chermayeff Prepared for the Published by The MIT Press Copyright © 1 973 by All rights reserved. No part 

Richard Saul Wurman First Federal Design Assembly Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Massachusetts Institute of this book may be reproduced 

Ralph Caplan sponsored by the and London, England of Technology in any form or by any means, 

Peter Bradford Federal Council on the Arts • electronic or mechanical. 

With and the Humanities Library of Congress including photocopying, recording, 

Jane Clark under a grant from the catalog card number; 73-2022 or by any information storage 

. National Endowment for the Arts ISBN: 0-262-03047-0 (hardcover) and retrieval system, 

ISBN: 0-262-53026-0 (paperback) without permission in wnting 

from the publisher. 


What follows is a book-long defi- 
nition of the design necessity. 
Initiated and produced for an As- 
sembly directed toward Federal 
administrators, the book seeks to 
provide a definition of design for 
designers as well. The First Fed- 
eral Design Assembly was not cre- 
ated as an end in itself but as a 
beginning — a vehicle for dissem- 
inating the ideas that led to its 
creation in the first place. 

This book is not the result of an 
honor awards search. The projects 
in it were chosen to illuminate spe- 
cific points in the development of 
our design definition. These points 
appear in the theme statement on 
page 4 and in "scan level" copy at 
the top of every page of text, an 
arrangement intended to make the 
book conform to the design per- 
formance criteria discussed in it. 

In gathering material we learned 
a lot about the state of Federal de- 
sign. Although many of the designs 
shown here are truly first-rate and 
gratifying, we are of course not 
uniformly satisfied with the exam- 
ples selected. The obvious thin- 
ness of certain areas is grounds 
for immediate design concern. 

A great many people helped in 
compiling the material that makes 
up this book. Our thanks to them 
appears in the form of the full proj- 
ect credits at the end of the vol- 
ume. But three persons in particu- 
lar deserve special mention here. 
Lani Lattin, Executive Secretary, 

Federal Council on the Arts and the 
Humanities, and Bill N. Lacy, Di- 
rector, Architecture + Environ- 
mental Arts, National Endowment 
for the Arts, were creative and con- 
structive critics during the months 
Ttie Design Necessity was in prep- 
aration. Jane Clark, who re- 
searched the book, performed with 
diligence and imagination and un- 
failing good humor. 

Beginnings are at once difficult 
and exciting. 

Ivan Chermayeff 

Richard Saul Wurman 

Ralph Caplan 

Peter Bradford 

Washington, D.C., 2 April 1973 


Visual Communications 

Interiors and 
Industrial Design 


Landscaped Environment 

Theme Statement ot the First 
Design Assembly 


The Design Necessity" 

National Park Service 

Graphics Programs for the 
Internal Revenue Service 
"Teaching Taxes" program 16 
Recruiting Brochures 18 

Graphics Standards Manuals 
United States Postal Service 
Design Control Guidelines 20 
USIA Design Manual 21 

'Atoms at Work" 

an Atomic Energy 

Commission exhibition 22 

The Acorn School 


Space Planning and Interior 
Design Study for the Opera- 
tions Control Center Building 
for the Washington Metro- 
politan Area Transit Authority 32 

Laboratory Outfitting for 

The Salk Institute for 

Biological Studies 34 

'Interior Design in Manned 
Spacecraft or Space Sta- 
tions," National Space and 
Aeronautics Administration, 
Literature Search #20724 36 

Morgantown Personal Rapid 
Transit System 38 

Student Housing, State 
University College at 
Brockport, N. Y. 

St. Francis Square 
Housing Project 

Grand Coulee 
Third Power Plant 



Everett McKinley Dirksen 
Building 48 

Old Buildings Restored 
The National Collection 
of Fine Arts and The 
National Portrait Gallery 50 

Old St. Louis Post Office 50 

Renwick Gallery 51 

Dulles International Airport 52 

Dallas Urban Design Pro- 

grams and Strategies 


Spaces for Recreation 

The Court of Ideas 


Tyson Park 


Harlem River Bronx 

State Park 


"State of Hawaii Land Use 

Districts and 

Regulations Review" 


Portland Auditorium 

Forecourt Fountain 




Credits and 


Theme Statement 

The First Federal Design Assembly 
was devoted to an examination ot 
"the design necessity." 

The Assembly program dis- 
cussed the necessity of design in 
visual communications, in interiors 
and industrial design, in architec- 
ture, and in the landscaped envi- 
ronment. Design was considered 
as an instrument of organization, 
a medium for persuasion, a means 
of relating objects to people, a 
method for improving safety and 
efficiency, and a way of coping 
with the complexity of contempo- 
rary Federal agency assignments. 

The Assembly's emphasis, then, 
was on design performance in re- 
sponse to human needs. 

Moreover, the emphasis was on 
demonstrable design performance. 
The Assembly program, the book 
called The Design Necessity, an 
exhibit and a short film all docu- 
ment the following points. 

1. That there are sound, proven 
criteria to be applied in judging de- 
sign effectiveness. 

2. That design is an urgent re- 
quirement, not a cosmetic addition. 

3. That design can save money. 

4. That design can save time. 

5. That design enhances com- 
munication between people. 

6. That design simplifies use, 
simplifies manufacture, simplifies 

7. That the design necessity is 
recognizably present in projects 
ranging in scale and complexity 

from a postage stamp to a national 
highway system. 

8. That the absence of design 
is a hazardous kind of design. Not 
to design is to suffer the costly 
consequences of design by default. 

9. That, on any given project, 
designers and Government officials 
are committed to the same basic 
goal: performance. 

10. That effective design of pub- 
lic services is itself an essential 
public service. 

Criteria for the design necessity 
are illustrated, in both the book 
and the exhibit, by case studies of 
Federally sponsored projects that 
work because they were designed 
to work. The case studies deal with 
significant aspects of design not 
visible on the surface, and discuss 
how problems were solved. 

The aim of the First Federal De- 
sign Assembly was to present a 
clear and compelling view of de- 
sign as a process. For in Govern- 
ment today that process is crucial. 


1. There are sound, proven 
criteria for judging 
design effectiveness. 

Design is necessary because it 
serves human needs. That is its 
only excuse for being. As human 
needs have become more compli- 
cated, and human beings more 
numerous, the design necessity 
has become more intense. 

Nowhere is design more neces- 
sary than in the Federal Govern- 
ment, the nation's largest client for 
design in visual communications, 
interiors, industrial design, archi- 
tecture, and in the landscaped 

Yet Federal design, like corpo- 
rate design of 20 years ago, is 
often mistaken as a luxury. There 
are easily understood reasons for 
this misconception. A responsible 
government has to defend what- 
ever it does on all fronts, and the 
handiest defense is quantification. 
It is easy to suppose that we can- 
not afford what we cannot measure. 

Easy but invalid. Some design 
achievement — more than one 
might think — can be measured; but 
even where it cannot be, the results 
of design are measurable. And so 
are the results of nondesign, which 
is indefensible. Nondesign is truly 
what we cannot afford. 

In the fifties the architect Richard 
Neutra wrote a book called Sur- 
vival by Design. It was a stimulating 
book and became a popular one; 
but the title was even more popular 
than the book, perhaps because it 
seemed so highly innovative. The 
idea of design as a means of sur- 

vival was surprising to many. 

Yet everything that is made by 
men to serve human needs has to 
be designed. When we refer to the 
architect of a foreign policy pro- 
gram or the designer of a scientific 
experiment, we acknowledge that 
programs and experiments are as 
designed as are buildings, posters, 
and traffic circles. 

Design itself is often what sur- 
vives. And design is in large meas- 
ure what civilizations and their gov- 
ernments are remembered by: how 
the public buildings looked and 
how the ruins look, what the sol- 
diers wore, the shape of their 
weapons, the flags and banners. 
As a visual image The Spirit of 76 
carries meaning to Americans who 
have never read the Declaration of 


Independence and even more 
meaning to those who have. 

To think of Washington, D.C., is 
to think of the Jefferson, Washing- 
ton, and Lincoln memorial monu- 
ments and of the Capitol dome. 

But those are appearances, and 
the appearance of things is not to 
be trusted wholly. Yet we all know 
that appearances matter nonethe- 
less. The aim of design is to bring 
form and performance into corre- 
spondence, not to substitute one 
for the other. The way things look 
is not irrelevant to the way things 
work: liow tliey work is how they 
should look. 

Looking right does not neces- 
sarily cost more than looking 

wrong. After all, everything has to 
have some look. All other things 
being equal, beauty and ugliness 
carry the same price tag. 

But this is not a book about 
beauty, although there are many 
handsome designs in it. Neither is 
this a collection of "best designs." 
It is a collection of designs exe- 
cuted for the Federal Government 
(either directly or with major Fed- 
eral funding) and included here on 
the basis of performance. 

The designs in this book have 
not been assembled for any honor- 
ific purpose, as in an awards pro- 
gram. Effective institutional design 
is rare enough to merit recogni- 
tion; and awards programs, such 
as the General Services Adminis- 
tration's and the Department of 
Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment's, have their place. We have 
a different purpose. The projects 
shown here have been selected to 
illustrate one or more points about 
the design process. 

That process is one in which ob- 
jects, systems, and environments 
are related to people. When envi- 
ronments were simpler, objects 
fewer and handmade, communica- 
tion less complex, and systems 
primitive, there was less need for 
a separate design function. Today 
we cannot survive without design, 
and in many areas of government 
no one would be foolish enough to 
try. No city, no highway, no traffic 
light, no spaceship, no transpor- 

tation system would or could be 
brought forth without designers. 

The need for design is less obvi- 
ous in the case of office furnish- 
ings, office forms, public spaces, 
brochures, announcements, signs, 
courtrooms, information desks, 
agency reports, and so on. Yet the 
design necessity is operable in 
these areas, and we ignore it at 
our peril, or at least at great cost. 

A badly designed questionnaire 
is unlikely to elicit useful re- 
sponses. It may, in fact, keep peo- 
ple from responding at all. And the 
process of producing and handling 
a badly designed form can cost 
thousands of dollars in extra print- 
ing costs, typing costs, costs of 
needless errors, costs of dupli- 
cated information — to say nothing 
of the immeasurable cost of hu- 
man frustration. 

It should go without saying, but 
unfortunately doesn't, that design 
is directed toward human beings. 
To design is to solve human prob- 

6 Introduction 

lems by identifying them, examin- 
ing alternate solutions to them, 
choosing and executing the best 

Question: Who can do this? 

Answer: A designer. 

Question: Any designer? 

Answer: Well, no. At least not 
equally well. Just as some designs 
are more necessary than others, 
some designers are more neces- 
sary than others. 

Yet any designer is experienced 
in the process and has some un- 
derstanding of the materials and 
methods appropriate to a given so- 
lution. Appropriateness is a key 
word: a sense of the appropriate 
lies at the heart of design judg- 
ment. That sense derives from the 
habitual vision of design in the 
service of people, rather than vice 

The late Henry Dreyfuss wrote of 
his industrial design practice: 

"We bear in mind that the object 
being worked on is going to be 
ridden in, sat upon, looked at, 
talked into, activated, operated, or 
in some other way used by people 
individually or en masse." 

That sort of concern has become 
increasingly urgent in recent years. 
At the same time, scientific re- 
search has been yielding vast 
stores of information on human 
needs and behavior. It is the de- 
signer's responsibility to use this 
information in shaping the de- 
signed environment. 

As a simple indication of the di- 
rection this might take we need 
look no further than the shift in em- 
phasis in the Dreyfuss office alone. 

During the forties Dreyfuss was 
in the vanguard of design-related 
human factors research, by virtue 
of his having developed anthropo- 
metric data relating to the essential 
measurements of men, women, 
and children. Niels Diffrient, a part- 
ner in the present Henry Dreyfuss 
Associates, has for years been de- 
veloping materials that go beyond 
anthropometrics to bring together 
psychology, sociology, anthropol- 
ogy, lighting, and other disciplines 
in what he calls a "grammar of 
human comprehension." 

Ideally, all designers would be 
knowledgeable in pediatrics and 
geriatrics, with some supplemen- 
tary experience in dealing with the 
middle years. In fact this doesn't 
happen and won't. That does not 
mean that design can't take into 
account what science has revealed 
about people. It only means that, 
where complex problems are in- 
volved, design must be an inter- 
disciplinary, collaborative process. 
In such a collaboration, design is 
the means of integrating the in- 
sights of other disciplines, bringing 
them to bear on problems, and 
giving form to the solutions. 

Question: If designers vary in 
ability, and design varies in qual- 
ity, how can I tell "good design" 
when I see it? 

Answer: Forget (at least for the 
time being) about "good design." 
The fact that the phrase is in quotes 
suggests its ambiguity. If you think 
instead of effective design, it be- 
comes easier to see the bases for 
judgments and your own qualifica- 
tions for meeting them. 

There are criteria for determin- 
ing design effectiveness, and some 

of them appear in the theme state- 
ment on page 4. These basic 
criteria overlap. (It is, for example, 
almost impossible to save time 
without saving money.) But that 
does not lessen their usefulness. 
It merely ensures that the most im- 
portant points for evaluation will be 
covered one way or another. 

It is important to remember that 
these are design criteria as well as 
designer's criteria. They suggest 
what design can do for consumers 
and clients, citizens and public of- 
ficials. In the light of these criteria 
we can survey the projects assem- 
bled in this book. 

2. Design is an urgent 
requirement, not a cosmetic 

The most urgent requirement for 
people and other animals is the 
availability of certain life essentials: 
drinkable water, clean air, arable 
land, and food for both energy and 
cell building. 

In addition to being essential, 
these life-sustaining elements have 
something else in common: they 
all come from the environment. 
There is no place else they can 
come from. The human race has 
been slow to realize this, but the 
need to design for environmental 
protection has in our time become 
firmly established. 

The comprehensive plan for the 
future of Dallas (page 64) is rooted 
in an ecological study of the area. 
Although the Dallas plan starts with 
ecological data, it does not stop 
there. The ecological study is now 
being used to determine transit 
corridors. With design appearing 
first as persuasion, then regulation, 
then policy, the planners hope to 
make the design-planning proc- 
ess a normal feature of daily city 

The Dallas approach dramatizes 
how very little genuine urban de- 
sign has to do with beautification 
programs. It also dramatizes the 
fact that compromises, euphemis- 
tically known as trade-offs, are in- 
trinsic to most difficult environ- 
mental decisions. Design is an 
instrument for revealing and com- 
municating the precise point at 
which a trade-off is most sensible. 

3. Design can save money. 

An official of fine Department of 
Housing and Urban Development 
points out that the Dallas approach 
"uses design as the basic means 
to identify and communicate the 
options that are to be negotiated 
beween the public and private sec- 
tors. Design approvals are becom- 
ing the most effective means that 
local governments have in modify- 
ing the important consequences 
that large-scale private develop- 
ments exert in urban areas." 

Similarly, in the Master Plan for 
Hawaii (page 70), design is the 
means by which the need for 
growth and the inevitability of 
growth may be reconciled with the 
deep need for preservation of land 
and landscape. 

None of the projects on the fol- 
lowing pages is merely cosmetic. 
None is an example of "applied 
design" added as a final touch 
to make things pretty or at least 
more palatable. 

But the designs here are not all 
vehicles for biological survival ei- 
ther. There are levels of urgency 
in what people need; and our 
needs go far beyond the basic ani- 
mal requirements for staying alive. 
We need room, we need an oppor- 
tunity to keep in touch with natural 
resources, we need places for peo- 
ple to come together, we need 
public areas that encourage spon- 
taneity and delight. And the urban 
environment is where we need all 
of these things the most. 

The Portland Auditorium Fore- 
court Fountain (page 74) satisfies 
these urgent needs. Design at its 
best brings out people at their best. 
It is not so much that people "live 
up to" the splendors of the foun- 
tain and the related plazas and 
malls as that in enjoying the water 
they enjoy themselves and each 
other as well. Enjoyment of this 
sort is an urgent civic requirement. 

When the subject of design is in- 
troduced in an area in which de- 
sign is not normally taken for 
granted, a predictable question 
comes up: Isn't it too expensive? 

Whether it is expensive or cheap 
(and it can be either), there is no 
getting around the fact that design 
costs something. It has this in com- 
mon with such other professional 
undertakings as medicine, religion, 
and public service. The question 
that needs to be asked, of course, 
is not whether design costs money 
but whether it is worth it The an- 
swer depends on a number of vari- 
ables and one of them is whether 
a given design saves money. 

For that is one of design's pur- 
poses: to perform efficiently, re- 
ducing the cost of materials, labor, 
production and materials. 

Design can save money in many 
ways. The wooden playground 
equipment in Tyson Park (page 
68) has minimized maintenance. 
Moreover, by greatly increasing the 
park's use at all hours, the design 
seems thus far to have eliminated 
vandalism. (To get some idea of 
what a savings this represents one 
need only consider that New York 
City's new Parks Commissioner 
took office with the announcement 
that if neighborhoods continue to 
vandalize parks, or permit them to 
be vandalized, the City will simply 
stop trying to maintain them.) 

That, like the Portland fountain, 
is a case of the public's rising to a 

design. Vandalism diminishes in 
part because there are usually peo- 
ple around. But vandalism itself is 
often a response to design and a 
judgment about it. 

Few schools anywhere are ade- 
quately budgeted. The design pa- 
rameters for the Acorn School 

(page 28) required that an un- 
usual educational philosophy be 
expressed in an interior that didn't 
cost much money. By showing the 
way the building works, by ex- 
posing, rather than concealing, 
the building's operating equip- 
ment, and by using factory-made 
devices and systems, ordered right 
out of the catalog, the designers 
were able to effect a solution that 
simultaneously cuts cost and en- 
hances learning. 

Saving money is always a mat- 
ter of choosing priorities. The de- 
sign of the St. Francis Square 
Housing Project (page 44) reflects 

the architects' ordering of priori- 
ties in favor of the project's envi- 
ronmental aspects. The space be- 
tween the buildings looks, and is, 
as important as the buildings them- 
selves. This emphasis meant 
scrimping on such apartment spec- 
ifications as kitchen size, hardly a 
trivial detail. 

It would be nice not to have to 
make such choices at all, to have 
environmental amenity and large 
kitchens, But where housing pro- 
ject budgets force the choice, it is 
better that it be made knowingly 
and designed into the product as 
it was in this case. 

Sometimes design can save 
money by incorporating proce- 
dures that already exist and don't 
have to be invented. Here the de- 

8 Introduction 

signer's general knowledge can 
serve botin him and his clients. 
The ecological study at the base 
of the Dallas Master Plan is eco- 
nomically computerized through 
the use of a program originally de- 
signed for the Wisconsin Light and 
Power Company. The use of in- 
dustrial components for housing 
and schools saves money while it 
demonstrates the extreme flexibil- 
ity of industrial technology. 

Economy, like other features of 
design performance, is most likely 
to result when a client knows what 
he wants. The Dormitory Authohty 

of the State of New York made an 
initial contribution to minimizing 
the cost of its student housing at 
Brockport (page 42) through an 
unusually well developed system 
for evaluating bids. Paradoxically, 
the price was kept down by set- 
ting a predetermined per-bed cost, 
thus eliminating price as a factor 
in bidding. Performance was the 
sole criterion. 

The most satisfying design ex- 
perience is one in which a wide 
range of objectives are achieved 
at once. The National Park Serv- 
ice (NPS) "Minifolders" program 

(page 14) comes close to fitting 
this description. The reduction in 
size first of all serves the park vis- 
itor, who can carry the folders in 
his or her shirt pocket. It serves 
Park Service employees by mak- 
ing storage and accessibility much 
easier. And because the employees 
can carry them in their shirt pock- 
ets too, each park worker be- 
comes a reliable guide, able to an- 
swer questions at a glance. 

Each of these design features 
is desirable in its own right, but 
the redesign grew out of an in- 
escapable need for economy. For 
the National Park System, the six- 
ties was a period of growth and 
change, unprecedented in both 
speed and variety. There were 188 

parks in 1 961 ; there are 298 today, 
and more are being planned. There 
were 86 million park visits in 1961 , 
compared to 202 million visits in 
1971. The early parks were estab- 
lished on Federal lands in the West; 
more recent parks are set up in 
areas complicated by joint state, 
local, and private ownership. Na- 
tional park "recreation" was quite 
a limited concept in the past, con- 
sisting largely of sightseeing and 
picnicking. The enormous popu- 
larity of camping and hiking — 
along with canoeing, diving, skiing, 
biking and snowmobiling — has 
vastly changed the character of 
National Park use. 

One thing was clear: however 
many parks there were, however 
many people visited them, and 
whatever it was they did there — 
park management costs would 
soar unless something were done. 

The minifolders hardly seem an 
adequate device for addressing 
problems of that magnitude, but 
they have greatly reduced costs of 
paper, typesetting, layout, print- 
ing, production, transportation, 
mailing, and storage. 

4. Design can save time. 

The NPS's minifolders save money 
in part because they save time in 
manufacturing. They also save the 
users' time, with clear maps and a 
minimum of guide prose. 

The Brockport Design/Build 
System (page 42) is based on sav- 
ing time through such techniques 
as on-site assembly of factory- 
made components and panelized 
cladding that can be attached from 
the inside of the building without 

The system saves time by trim- 
ming both field labor and fabrica- 
tion procedures. Dormitory sys- 
tems usually take 30 to 48 months 
to complete after planning. This 
system will take 1 8 months. 

One of the difficulties with any 
new graphics program can be 
the time it takes to implement it. 
Graphics standards manuals like 
those shown on page 20 generally 
have two purposes. One is to pre- 
vent the design from being vitiated 
somewhere along the line through 
carelessness or uninformed judg- 
ment. But designers can expect 
bad judgments because good ones 
are hard and time-consuming to 
make, especially by people with 
no qualifications for making them. 
Trying to decide just how a trade- 
mark or symbol should be used 
on a truck or an interdepartmental 
memo form can take time. To re- 
duce that time, by narrowing the 
areas in which decision can be 
made, is the other major purpose 

of a standards manual. The Army 
painting program is a good ex- 
ample of graphics standards con- 
trol based on the use of identifiable 
and consistent symbols. 

If the jet plane symbolizes man's 
semi-conquest of time, the jet-age 
airport tends to symbolize just the 
opposite. It is by now common- 
place to observe that getting a 
traveler to the plane can take more 
time than flying him to the airport 
of his destination. What can be 
done about it? The best-designed 
answer to date is probably Dul- 
les International Airport (page 52), 
which was, planned from the be- 
ginning for'jets. That is to say, it 
was planned for jet passengers, 
who can reach their aircraft with- 
out having to take ten-minute walks 
through terminal "fingers." 

5. Design enhances 

Designing a new kind of air- 
port required radical decisions tliat 
would require the cooperation of 
the major airlines that used the 
airport. The necessity to make 
those decisions clear and to ex- 
plain the reasons behind them pre- 
sented a peculiar problem to the 
designers. Because the most com- 
pelling design parameters had to 
do with time and movement, the 
designers concluded that film was 
the only medium that could per- 
suasively convey the complex mes- 
sage A film The Expanding Air- 

port," was commissioned and 
made. Produced primarily for a 
tiny audience of top airline execu- 
tives, it became a significant tool 
for winning understanding and ac- 
ceptance of the Dulles idea. 

Among the most striking and 
useful Federal graphic products 
are the Department of the Interior 
Geological Survey maps like the 
one of Washington, D.C. shown 
below. It is both unjust and heart- 
ening that such a high order of 
design excellence should be taken 
for granted by so many of us 

Most communication between 
people does not happen through 
print. An office, a school, and a 
courthouse are all environments 
ostensibly. created for the purpose 
of enhancing communication. Yet 
few schools and courthouses, and 
even fewer offices, are designed 
to perform this service well. The 
Washington Metropolitan Area 
Transit Authority (WMATA) Office 
System Proposal (page 32) re- 
flects a growing trend in office de- 
sign The trend is to try to antici- 
pate the kinds of communication 

that take place, to identify the par- 
ticipants, and then to design a sys- 
tem that supports the process as 
strongly and as flexibly as possible. 
The interior of the Acorn School 
(page 28) is designed to support 
the special communicative pat- 
terns of modified Montessori learn- 
ing. As pointed out earlier, much 
of the school equipment comes 

"out of the catalog." It is worth 
noting that a catalog does not ob- 
viate the need for design. In fact, 
just the opposite is true: design is 
required to make effective use of 
a catalog. Without design you have 
the average office building or 
the average mail-order-furnished 
room. With design, you can have 
the Acorn School. 

6. Design simplifies use, 
manufacture, maintenance. 

A project designed for perform- 
ance and oriented to the human 
user is almost certain to meet more 
than one of the working criteria. 

Design criteria rarely exist in 
isolation from one another. The de- 
sign factors that save passengers 
time at Dulles International Airport 
(page 52) are the same factors 
that simplify the airport's use. The 
design factors that save money in 
the Acorn School, NPS Minifolders 
Program, St. Francis Square Hous- 
ing Project, and the Brockport De- 
sign/Build System are the factors 
that simplify manufacture, mainte- 
nance, and use. 

10 Introduction 

7. Design necessity is 
recognizably present in 
projects ranging in 
scale and complexity from 
a postage stamp to a 
highway system. 

The designs selected for this book 
cover a wide range of design prob- 
lems in the Federal Government. 
An NPS minifolder is, by definition, 
very small. Dulles International Air- 
port is very large and designed to 

become much larger when the 
occasion demands. Most design 
problems fall between those two 
extremes. But the urgency of a de- 
signed solution does not depend 
on the size of the project. 

8. The absence of design is 
a hazardous kind of design. 
Not to design is to suffer 
the costly consequences 
of design by default. 

Just as "no-politics is a kind of 
politics," no-design is a kind of 
design. There are no examples in 
this book of design by default, at 
least not deliberately. But exam- 
ples abound and are all about you. 
As a matter of statistical probabil- 
ity, you probably work in an en- 
vironment that was designed by 
the space and the furnishings 
rather than by a designer thinking 
of the work that has to be done 
and the people who have to do it. 

That environment is called the 
office. It is where 40 percent of 
the nation's working population do 
their work against odds made stag- 
gering by the absence of design. 
There is, to be sure, plently of dec- 
oration in offices. But, apart from 
size and accessories, it is difficult 
to distinguish the office of an ac- 
countant from that of a writer, a 
sales manager, a salesman, a su- 
pervisor, a department head, a 
contractor, or a designer. 

By the late sixties this phenom- 
enon had attracted some serious 
attention and research. Among the 
results are a variety of "open 
plans" or, in the jargon of the 
trade, "office landscaping." 

Open planning had commonly 
been used in factories but was un- 
usual in offices — except in news- 
paper offices, where it was the 
rule. The city desk ringed by avail- 
able editor-reporters was based 
on the need for quick communica- 
tion with relatively little concern 

for privacy. But office layouts 
tended generally to award privacy 
according to rank, rather than the 
kind of work done, and to seriously 
inhibit communication. 

In the fifties the rabbit-warren 
office complex was challenged by 
designers who rediscovered open 
planning at about the same time 
elementary schools were begin- 
ning to rediscover it. It happened 
during a period when architects 
generally had stopped talking 
about rooms and started talking 

about "space." The term "office 
landscaping" was attached to a 
German firm called Quickborner 
Team, and it became known as the 
Quickborner approach. 

In America designer Robert 
Propst had for years been studying 

offices in a new way. Investigating 
what people did in offices, he came 
up with a lively set of observations. 
He found what Government work- 
ers must always have known but 
never codified: that important (or 
at least useful) information was 
squirreled away in drawers and 
never used or even seen again, 
while unimportant (or at least un- 
usable) information was clogging 
desktops, offices, and minds. View- 
ing the office as "a facility for 
change," Propst developed rec- 
ommendations for the kind of en- 
vironment and equipment that 
would make desired change feasi- 
ble. Through a furniture manufac- 
turer he translated his ideas into a 
line of office furniture and related 
accessories designed to make 
work efficient in a variety of pos- 
sible office plans. 

9. On any given project, 
designers and Government 
officials have the same 
basic goal: performance. 

"Unless there is a commitment 
trom above, design won't worl<," 
says Vincent Gleason, Cliief of the 
Division of Publications, National 
Park Service. 

He surely is right, especially in 
respect to design in a large and 
complex institution, such as Gov- 
ernment. But the commitment can- 
not be given form until there are 
clear performance goals. 

Having a goal does not neces- 
sarily mean being able to describe 
the goal in design terms. As a gen- 
eral rule, therefore, the designer 
or design team ought to be in- 
volved in a project early. 

To call in a designer for the first 
time after decisions affecting de- 
sign have been made is always a 
mistake and often a tragic one. De- 
signers called in, for example, 
after hardware specifications have 
been frozen have to either "design 
around" arbitrary obstacles or to 

"undesign" what was wrongly done 
in the first place. 

In either case the result is time 
consuming, expensive, and less 
than fully effective. 

That error was fortunately 
avoided in the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission exhibition on page 22. The 
designer was called in to develop 
a trailer exhibition to travel in Latin 
America. He accepted the assign- 
ment with the stipulation that the 
AEC suspend any commitment to 
trailers until he had made a pre- 
liminary study. The study indicated 
that an air-supported structure 
promised to make a more effective, 
more flexible, more economical ex- 
hibition than a trailer would have. 
The result was a major exhibition 
that had impact and duration far 
beyond that customarily expected 
of trailer shows. 

For some design projects the 
performance goals are so specific, 

and their achievement dependent 
upon such highly specialized 
study, that "the designer" is really 
a team. The Magruder Environ- 
mental Therapy Complex in Or- 
lando, Florida, is a good example 
of what such an interdisciplinary 
team can accomplish. 

Magruder is a playground de- 
signed to make major play experi- 

ences accessible to physically 
handicapped children. In achiev- 
ing this the designers — an archi- 
tect, a psychologist, physical ther- 
apist, physical education expert, 
school principal, and others — ex- 
pect to improve the children's 
mental health, increase their edu- 
cability, and make new discover- 
ies about the relationship between 
play and learning. , 

10. Effective design of public 
services is itself an 
essential public service. 

Such services as our national 
parks, our courthouses, our Fed- 
erally sponsored schools and 
transportation systems and muse- 
ums and housing projects are the 
most tangible forms through which 
Government reaches the public. In 
a democracy, then, these are the 
forms through which we get in 
touch with ourselves. That is the 
design necessity. 

Design will not create peace out 
of war, affluence out of poverty, 
commitment out of cynicism, or 
justice out of injustice. It will not 
right social wrongs. It will not even 
make up for lack of talent. 

But an environment can help 
bring out the best in people or the 
worst. We rise to our problems in 
order to design. We rise in re- 
sponse to designed environment. 
That is the design necessity. 

The problems of Government are 
complex, and their solutions de- 
pend upon diverse resources. As 
a way of applying interdisciplinary 
insights to the lives and work of 
human beings, design is neces- 
sary to Government. The effective 
design of public services is indeed 
an essential public service in itself. 

And that is the design necessity. 


' '-tit 


Visual Communications 

National Park Service 

Minifolders 14 

Graphics Programs for tine 
Internal Revenue Service 
"Teaching Taxes" program 16 
Recruiting Brochures 18 

Graphics Standards Manuals 
United States Postal Service 
Design Control Guidelines 20 
USIA Design Manual ' 21 

'Atoms at Work" 

an Atomic Energy 

Commission exhibition 22 

14 Visual Communications 

National Park Service 

Drastic size reduction and 
modular format save money, 
save time, enhance com- 
munication, and simplify 
manufacture and use. 

Funding Agency: 
Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 


National Park Service 
Division of Publications Staff, 
Vincent Gleason, Chief 

Saves money: individual 
folder cost drops from 4y2 

to 21/2 0. 

The brochures shown here are 
"minifolders" distributed by the 
National Park Service at more than 
half of the nearly 300 national 
parks. In 1973 NPS will publish 
some 150 different minifolders with 
a print run of 16 to 17 million. 

Effective design depends upon a 
clear perception of the problem or 
problems to be solved. A common 
means of identifying the problem 
is to look for the intersection of ob- 
jectives and constraints. 

The general objective of the Na- 
tional Park Service's (NPS) free 
folders program is straightforward 
enough: to tell park visitors about 
the particular parks they are visit- 
ing. But how much information 
should be supplied and what kind? 

The Park Service defined what 
the typical visitor needs as follows: 

1. A brief text telling where to 
go, what to see and when. 

2. An accurate, easily read map, 
with pictures and diagrams. 

3. Information about such mat- 
ters as safety, clothing, weather 
and altitude. 

4. Information about food and 

As a design constraint, all of 
that basic information was to be 
offered in a folder small enough to 
fit into a shirt pocket or purse. 

In a large-volume Federal print 
program, however, the primary 
constraints are usually budgetary. 
Congressional restrictions limit the 
money spent for publication. Regu- 

Revised format for giveaway 
folders frees staff to spend 
time improving literature 
that the Park Service sells. 

lations set by the Joint Committee 
on Printing restrict color reproduc- 
tion and paper stock, Tliere are 
costs of shipping and storage and 
of distribution to the public. 

The minifolder program suc- 
ceeds within these constraints and 
in fact gets improved results be- 
cause of them. The paper, colors, 
and typeface are all more appro- 
priate to the job of the folders than 
more lavish treatment would be. 

The Division of Publications in 
1964 proposed reducing the free 
folder to the smallest size and the 
lowest cost. Information in more 
depth, and with more flavor than 
the minifolder could provide, would 
be offered in one of the publica- 
tions that are sold. 

"The place 




Covers are usually one 
color. Maps are simplified. 
Text is condensed to basic 
information. Copy, of stand- 
ardized width, is typewriter- 
set in house. 

The savings are obvious enough: 
less paper, less expensive ship- 
ping, simpler handling. And the 
time 'Saving features range from 
simpler distribution to fewer argu- 
ments about cover illustrations 

(there are no cover illustrations). 
Many in the NPS are convinced 
that the new program has improved 
the quality of information in the free 
folder (since the information is 
basic, it is easier to be accurate 
and current) and in the process 
freed the publication division to 
turn its attention to the user-subsi- 
dized sales publications, improv- 
ing them in turn. 

Vincent Gleason, Chief of the 
Division of Publications, summa- 
rizes the minifolder savings: 

Format: "Text material is reduced, 
and annual changes have been 
made easier and cheaper. Layout 
problems are simplified to a few 
combinations. Maps are standard- 
ized. Type is restrained to a few 
faces and measures." 

Printing: "Low-cost paper is 
specified, and less paper is used. 
Most of the minifolders are printed 
in two colors. Press time is more 
efficient because there are more 
impressions per hour." 

Shipping and storage: "We use 
fewer cartons for packing, and it 
costs less to ship. The minifolder is 
easier to hand out and cheaper to 

Average current costs: "A new 
regular folder costs 41/2 0; a new 
minifolder, 2^/2 0. A reprinted regu- 
lar folder costs 2y2 0; a reprinted 
minifolder, 1 V20. 

"A careful estimate would put the 
combined time and money savings 
at 20 percent." 

16 Visual Communications 

Graphics Programs for the 
Internal Revenue Service 

"Teaching Taxes" program 
uses rotogravure publica- 
tions designed to look like 
Sunday supplements. They 
go to 4,000,000 students in 
24,000 schools across the 

Funding Agency: 
Department of tine Treasury 
Internal Revenue Service 


("Teaching Taxes") 

IRS Publishing Services Branch 

Design Group, David Haussman, 

Betty Moran, Project Designers 

(Recruiting Brochures) 

IRS Publishing Services Branch 

Design Group, 

Dick Servatius, Project Designer 

At the heart of Federal spending is 
Federal income, or taxes. And at 
the heart of the Federal tax system 
are self-assessment and voluntary 
compliance. These features of the 
Federal tax system place upon the 
citizen the burden of deciding how/ 
much he owes the Government as 
well as the burden of paying it. 

Even if paying taxes were easy, 
computing them is not. Yet citizens 
have to do it, regardless of their 
arithmetical sophistication, in the 
face of new regulations, policies, 
codes, rulings, etc. 

A number of design problems 
come together here. Tax forms 
must look as welcome as possible 
under circumstances that make it 
very unlikely that they will ever be 
truly welcome. Explanatory publi- 
cations must make complicated 
issues clear. Publications have to 
perform well without any hint of 
lavishness, which might seem par- 
ticularly inappropriate for the Inter- 
nal Revenue Service. 

Graphic design for the Internal 
Revenue Service is, in other words, 
the point at which the Federal Gov- 
ernment of the United States reg- 
ularly addresses its individual 
citizens, usually on the same sub- 
ject, which happens to be less 
than agreeable. 

Voluntary compliance is a signif- 
icant IRS cost-saving policy, for it 
makes the citizen a partner in 
the bookkeeping and compilation 
process. The function of the IRS 

educative programs is to make him 
a knowledgeable partner. With the 
help of these materials the IRS ex- 
pects this year's tax returns to re- 
flect a 90 percent voluntary com- 
pliance with the law. 

Much of the IRS communica- 
tion effort goes into bringing tech- 
nical information to accountants, 
tax lawyers, and other specialists. 
But a certain amount of technical 
information has to be presented to 
the layman as well, and this is per- 
haps the biggest challenge faced 
by the IRS. The service publishes 
special-problem materials, always 

strongly identified on the cover, as 
in the "Farmer's Tax Guide." 
*The Internal Revenue Service's 
recent emphasis on clarity in its 
forms and on public understand- 
ing of its procedures has given the 
Publishing Services Branch of IRS 
an educative function. Its "Under- 

Increased format size saves 
money, reducing page total 
by 25 percent. Album format 
enhances IRS educative 
function by permitting legi- 
ble display of tax forms 
keyed to explanatory text. 

18 Visual Communications 

The Internal Revenue Serv- 
ice issues one publication 
designed to show IRS em- 
ployment opportunities in 
general. Other publications 
help recruit people for spe- 
cific jobs. 

standing Taxes" program is de- 
signed to reach liigli scliool stu- 
dents just as they are about to be- 
come taxpayers. 

"Understanding Taxes" — Gen- 
eral Edition (Publication 21) had an 
initial 1971 printing of four million. 
This was not enough. A barrage of 
enthusiastic requests from teach- 
ers and school principals required 
an additional printing of 20,000. 

The two "Understanding Taxes" 
booklets shown here are 10%" by 
1 23/4" and are almost identical, ex- 
cept that one is designed for sub- 
urban youth, and the other has 
several pages of additional mate- 
rial for rural youth. The material is 
lucid and nonpatronizing both in 
text and in illustrations. 

The illustrations are essential, 
for most of them are simply re- 
productions of the tax forms them- 
selves, .showing how they should 
be filled out under various circum- 
stances. Illustrations are closely 
keyed to the text. In the previous 
format (7%" by lO^A") each tax 
form had to take up a page in order 
to be legible. By going to the larger 
"album" style the designers were 
able to reduce the total number of 
pages from 64 to 48, with a marked 
savings in printing and production 

Another IRS problem addressed 
in part by graphic design is re- 
cruitment. In the late fifties IRS ad- 
ministrators came to believe that 
they were not getting their fair 

share of the talent pool. Investigat- 
ing the recruiting procedures of 
large industrial corporations, they 
discovered a great disparity be- 
tween the quality of corporate re- 
cruiting literature and their own 
literature. As a result IRS design- 
ers created a new set of recruiting 
materials, with each job category 
treated in a separate two- or three- 
color brochure. 

The recruiting brochures are 
sent out to 58 district offices and 
their college representatives and 
to ten service centers. 

Of the six recruiting brochures, 
five deal with specific jobs and are 
intended chiefly for college em- 
ployment offices. The sixth, "A 
New Dimension in Taxation," con- 
tains general information on IRS 
opportunities and is used to answer 
general requests. 

Talent recruitment is one area 
in which industry and the Federal 
Government are competitive. IRS 
recruitment officers feel that the 
image of the IRS in particular, and 
the Federal Government in gen- 
eral, tended to be one of "green 
eyeshades." These brochures help 
counter that image for both pros- 
pective employees and recruiting 
agents, who are proud to be as- 
sociated with the new materials. 

In the words of James Pugh, IRS 
Director of Recruitment, "The new 
brochures attracted college stu- 
dents that we otherwise never 
would even have seen." 

Recruiting brochures use 
bright but not splashy 
graphics to attract "kids we 
otherwise would never even 
have seen." 

System is designed to save 
money and time by using 
same drawings more than 
once in different colors. 

20 Visual Communications 

Graphics Standards Manuals 

United States Postal Serv- 
ice Design Control Guide- 
lines is issued in two ver- 
sions, saving money and 
simplifying use. Full manual 
goes to those with heavy 
design responsibility. 
Smaller manual provides 
information in less detail for 
general administrators. 

Funding Agencies: 

(United States Postal Service 

Design Control 


United States Postal Service 

(USIA Design Manual) 
United States 
Information Agency 


(United States Postal Service 

Design Control Guidelines) 

United States Postal Service 

Creative Services, 

Vincent Hoffman, Division Manager 

Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, Inc. 

(USIA Design Manual) 

United States 

Information Agency, 

Robert Sivard, Art Director 

Identification system is ap- 
plied to United States Postal 
Service products ranging 
from change-of-address 
forms to mail carrier's 

Design, like otlner media for organ- 
ization, has to be directed in order 
to be effective. TInis need becomes 
especially conspicuous when an 
agency adopts a visual identity 

With its new status as an inde- 
pendent establishment within the 
executive branch of Government, 
the postal service took on a new 
symbol. The symbol serves as the 
basis for new "U.S. Mail" and 
"United States Postal Service" em- 
blems that are key elements in an 

identification system for vehicles, 
mail boxes, stationery, printed 
forms, uniforms, carrier's satchels 
and other official paraphernalia. 

To implement the identification 
system, and to assure its consist- 
ent use, the designers prepared 
a design guidelines manual. The 
manual demonstrates proper use 
of the symbols under various cir- 
cumstances, much as similar 
graphics standards manuals do for 
private corporations. 

The USIA Design Manual takes 
a different tack, for the USIA's 
problems and aims are different. 
This manual is not a prescription 
for correct use, but a guide to in- 
telligent and effective performance 

of the USIA's mission in respect 
to print. 

As such it has far more latitude 
than typical graphics standards 
manuals. Except for such con- 
stants as the Agency seal and the 
Agency symbol, there are almost 
no directives in the book, and even 
the seal and symbol are treated 
loosely. The text discusses ways in 
which the seal is "normally used," 
and suggests "If your post designs 
its own version [of the symbol] 
please send a copy to the Art Di- 
rector for the record." 

This freehandedness does not 
of course stem from indifference. 
It stems from a realization that the 
USIA's cross-cultural function 
makes uniformity both undesirable 
and impossible. The manual, which 
is loaded with examples of imagi- 
native graphic designs from ex- 
tremely diverse sources, instructs 
USIA officers in what design can 
accomplish and how. It is in fact an 
excellent introduction to graphics 
for any administrator, in or out 
of Government, who has some de- 
gree of responsibility for design. 

One of many design elements 
the manual explains is the use of a 
grid system. Since the USIA man- 
ual itself is laid out on a grid, it be- 
comes its own illustration. The 
three-column-by-four-unit grid is 
included in the manual, and the 
user can remove the looseleaf page 
and place it over other pages to 
see how the system works. 

USIA Design Manual en- 
hances communication by 
drawing on, and explaining, 
a wide range of effective 
graphic designs from out- 
side Government and ex- 
plaining how they work. 

Simplifies use by means of 
such devices as removable 
overlay that tells what a grid 
system is and shows how 
it works. 

22 Visual Communications 

'Atoms At Work" 

Time saving and money sav- 
ing structure can be erected 
by 12 workmen in four days. 
White on outside for heat 
reflection, it is black inside 
for light control. 

Lecture-demonstration area, 
like the rest of the exhibition, 
uses theatrical light control 
to make points clear and 

Funding Agency: 

Atomic Energy Commission 


Victor Lundy 

Planning and Coordination: 

Albert H.Woods 

Exhibit Design: 

Carlos Ramirez 

Film Production: 

Francis Thompson 

Architect's two-celled form 
both expresses and makes 
feasible the dual-level na- 
ture of the exhibition. Draw- 
ing of plan shows film area, 
lecture-demonstrsition areas, 
and technical area which is 
open to public vie^wing. 

"Atoms at Work," an exhibition on 
tine peaceful uses of atomic energy, 
was sponsored by tine Atomic En- 
ergy Commission. Tine exhibition 
toured for four years in Latin Amer- 
ica and another four years in 
Europe and the Middle East. 

In the fall of 1959 the AEC out- 
lined its aims for an exhibition on 
United States progress in atomic 
energy. The exhibit was intended 
to travel to several locations in 
South America. 

To plan and coordinate the ex- 
hibition AEC retained a designer, 
who then began to do research into 
both atomic energy and the prob- 
lems of Latin America. 

The AEC wanted an exhibition 
addressed to a large audience of 
the lay public and a smaller audi- 
ence of scientists, technicians, and 
advanced students. The designer 
decided that, with a subject as 
complex as atomic energy, the only 
way to avoid compromise was to 
address the two audiences sepa- 
rately. He proposed a technical 
section of the exhibition with a sep- 
arate entrance and admission by 
invitation. This section would in- 
clude an extensive working labora- 
tory, with United States and Latin 
American scientists performing co- 
operative experiments. 

For the public section the de- 
signer outlined a film treatment of 
a generalized message. Film was 
chosen because of its possibilities 
for dramatic effect, because it lent 

itself to presenting the gigantic 
physical facilities associated with 
atomic energy, and because it can 
be converted from one language to 
another with reasonable success. 

The technical area was also to 
be part of the show in the public 
area: after the introductory film, the 
audience would be able to watch 
scientists at work. 

The exhibition had to move from 
city to city on a limited budget. 
These constraints indicated the 
use of mobile units. The project 
was already referred to as "The 
Latin American Trailer Show," and 
negotiations were under way to buy 
a number of large trailers. The de- 
signer took the assignment with 
the understanding that trailer pur- 
chases be delayed until he had a 
chance to investigate alternatives. 
In the process of investigating al- 
ternatives he came across a port- 
able air-supported missile-mainte- 
nance enclosure that the Army had 
installed in Alabama at a cost of 
$1.50 per square foot. 

The architect — chosen on the 
basis of his ability to handle com- 
plexity in simple and visually strik- 
ing ways — confirmed the feasibility 
of an air-supported structure. His 
solution, shown here, consists of 
two cells, one for the film and one 
for the technical center and public 
lecture-demonstrations. The two 
balloon shapes are slightly warped 
for acoustical reasons. The struc- 
ture consists of two pressurized 

Model traces power produc- 
tion from reactor vessel 
(circle) to heat exchanger 
(square) to generator 

Animated symbol for med- 
ical exhibit reveals brain, 
heart and thyroid gland with 
twinkling lights indicating 

24 Visual Communications 

Three-screen film enhances 
communication by treating 
the scale and diversity of 
atomic energy applications. 

skins of vinyl-coated nylon, sepa- 
rated by a four-foot air space. Port- 
able walls separate the audience 
from the building's inner skin. 

In both content and technique 
the film was designed especially 
for this exhibition. Faced with the 
problem of introducing the subject 
of atomic energy to a lay audience 
as arrestingly as possible, film- 
maker Francis Thompson experi- 
mented with various arrangements 
of projection surfaces. Three ad- 
jacent screens — a format which 
had been used before in some- 
what different ways — offered 
Thompson the latitude he needed 
to solve the problem. 

The three-screen configuration 
proved well suited to the complex- 
ity of the subject. Clear explana- 
tion was supported by the simul- 
taneous display of live action and 
animation. Motion picture footage 
projected next to stills helped 
maintain a sense of movement 
even though many of the important 
shots were of static equipment and 

The "visual overload" provided 
by three screens takes advantage 
of the viewer's peripheral vision, 
usually ignored in conventional 
filmmaking. The result here was 
the ability to emphasize the abun- 
dance of information relevant to 
atomic energy and to deliver as 
much of it as possible to large 
crowds as they moved through the 

Top panel (page 25) shows 
two views of city; center 
panel shows three views of 
a solar observatory mirror; 
bottom panel uses pan shot 
across all three screens. 







Interiors and 
Industrial Design 

The Acorn School 

tions Control Center Building 
for the Washington Metro- 
politan Area Transit Authority 32 

TheSalk Institute for 

Biological Studies 34 

"Interior Design in Manned 
Spacecraft or Space Sta- 
tions," National Space and 
Aeronautics Administration, 
Literature Search #20724 36 

Morgantown Personal Rapid 
Transit System 33 

28 Interiors and Industrial Design 

The Acorn School 

New York, New York 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 
Phipps Houses 

Mayers & Schiff 

The Acorn School was built in 
"found" space on the ground floor 
of a New York City high-rise apart- 
nnent building financed with FHA 
funds and a bank loan. 

If there is one American institu- 
tion that has been roundly con- 
denined in our time, it is the school. 
The epithet "joyless," given cur- 
rency by a popular book on the 
subject, has been applied to class- 
rooms across the nation. 

The Acorn School is anything 
but joyless, and it is located in a 
city where the schools are consid- 
ered by many to be the embodi- 
ment of everything wrong with 
education in America. 

Acorn, of course, is not a public 
school, and it is not situated in a 
conventional school building, but 
in an area that the builders had in- 
tended for doctors and dentists. 
But there is no reason that public 
schools cannot be located in found 
space. That possibility has become 
attractive to administrators lately 
as an alternative to the imperson- 

Design of community school 
on the ground floor of an 
apartment building is re- 
sponsive to needs of par- 
ents, teachers, and above 
all children, some of whom 
made drawings of what they 
wanted the school to be like. 

ality of large schools and the 
amounts of money and time re- 
quired to build them. 

In addition to economy (it is gen- 
erally cheaper to rehabilitate exist- 
ing spaces in already sound struc- 
tures than to build new ones), found 
space has certain educational ad- 
vantages. Instead of segregating 
the educational process, it inte- 
grates formal education into other 
aspects of daily life. And the en- 
vironmental excitement of found 
space is likely to exceed that of a 
standard classroom building. 

But Acorn is interesting less be- 
cause of where it is than because 
of what the designers did there. 

Performance goals were not dif- 
ficult to set. Acorn is a parent- 
owned community school, loosely 
Montessori in philosophy. It con- 
sists of an upper school for ages 
5 to 11 and a Idwer school of nur- 
sery and kinde/gartenl The upper 
school was programmed for an 
open classroo/n, and ohildren are 
encouraged td mix, irrespective of 

Hospital cubicle track is 
suspended from the ceiling 
in a circle seven feet above 
the floor. Fabric dividers 
hang from the track and can 
be swung in front of study 
carrels to form private 
spaces. Service ducts are 
labeled to say what they are. 

30 Interiors and Industrial Design 

"Found" space is comple- 
mented by "found" interior 
components ordered right 
out of catalog. Urethane 
carts equipped with pro- 
jectors are wheeled up to 
carrels made of scaffolding, 
and slides are projected on 
back of shelving. 

ages, according to their own inter- 
ests. So as much equipment as 
possible had to be designed for 
use by children of various sizes 
and sophistication and with varying 
degrees of coordination. 

The openness of the classroom 
space had somehow to be made 
compatible with the need for pri- 
vacy and intimacy (several of the 
children prepared sketches for the 
architect, and these tended to 
stress nooks, niches, crevices, 
treehouses and similar warm, pri- 
vate retreats). 

Since Acorn is owned by middle- 
class parents, there were severe 
budgetary restrictions to the proj- 
ect. The designers avoided the ex- 
pense of a dropped ceiling. They 
left all ceiling pipes and ducts ex- 
posed for reasons of economy, and 
also to enliven the appearance. 
Some of those components are 
labeled with vinyl lettering, mak- 
ing children aware of mechanical 
features of a building that are usu- 
ally hidden. The block walls are 
covered with "self-healing" vinyl 
that closes over holes when tacks 
and pushpins are removed. 

The design solution is colorful, 
low-cost and extremely flexible. 
The basic design element is a col- 
lection of standard builder's scaf- 
folds, each fitted out for specific 
functions: storage areas, book 
nooks, dens, study carrels, theater 
areas. The scaffolding modules 
roll wherever the kids want to roll 

them. When combined with mov- 
able urethane projection carts the 
scaffolds become mini-theaters. 

What is so special about the 
scaffolding, of course, is that it is 
not special at all. Other right-out- 
of-the-catalog items include hospi- 
tal cubicle track suspended from 
the ceiling, clamp-on spotlights for 
the scaffolding modules, dock 
lights, and plastic industrial storage 
bins mounted on rails along the 

Lower school is lit by truck- 
ers loading-dock lights. 
Carpeted stairs are used as 
story-telling area or stage. 
Alphabetical plastic bins 
can be removed for wash- 
ing. Basic module for the 
media area is standard alu- 
minum builders scaffolding. 

walls. The marked electric race- 
ways increase flexibility, permitting 
lights, audio visual devices, and 
other electrical equipment to be 
plugged in anywhere. 

Lighting is variable, and for the 
most part the kids vary it them- 
selves. Pipe-mounted spots and 
truck dock lights are on dimmers, 
and each scaffold module has its 
own clip-on incandescent spots. 

According to architects Mayers 
and Schiff the total cost of the proj- 
ect (for which they selected or de- 
signed all furnishings) was $108,- 
000, which comes to $20 per square 
foot and $1,000 per student. New 
York City's present going rate for 
school construction and furnishing 
is between $50 and $60 per square 
foot and between $5,000 and 
$7,000 per student. 

The imaginative response to con- 
straints of space anq money, the 
incorporation of the client'.s objec- 
tives into the solution, and above 
all the concern for the users make 
Acorn School an unusually good 
example of design performance. 

32 Interiors and Industrial Design 

Space Planning and Interior 
Design Study for the 
Operations Control Center 
Building for the 
Washington Metropolitan 
Area Transit Authority 

Washington, D.C. 

Architects conducted a 
comparative study of open 
planning versus conven- 
tional offices and made 
comparative drawings of 
furnishings and other 

Funding Agency: 
Washington Metropolitan 
Area Transit Authority 

Architects and Planners: 
Keyes, Lethbridge and Condon 

Problem: Offices for the Washing- 
ton Metropolitan Area Transit Au- 
thority (WMATA) have to be adapt- 
able to a new and constantly 
changing organization. 

Solution: Architects Keyes, Leth- 
bridge and Condon based their 
space planning and interior design 
program on a study of open versus 
conventional office planning. 

WMATA was set up to plan, de- 
velop and operate the capital's 
subway system, now under con- 
struction. Recently it has been 
charged with the responsibility of 
operating the bus system as well. 

That indicates the kind of organ- 
ization WMATA is: one that has al- 
ready changed and will change 
even more as the subway is com- 

Open and conventional 
work stations for various 
employee functions are 

pleted and the responsibility shifts 
from building a subway system to 
running and maintaining one. 

Early in the study pictured here, 
the designers were convinced that 
open planning was indicated, pri- 
marily because flexibility was so 
important. Open layouts could be 
rearranged with minimal disrup- 
tion and — especially important — 
were more likely to be. Landscaped 
offices, the designers discovered, 
were moved more often to increase 
or maintain efficiency because the 
moves could be made handily dur- 
ing off hours. Conventional offices, 
on the other hand, discouraged 
moves and changes because of 
the disruption they caused, and 
encouraged making do with ineffi- 

cient arrangements. 

Circulation routes in open space 
are also less rigid and easily rede- 
fined as needs change. 

The lower maintenance costs of 
open planning were just as impres- 
sive as the convenience and effi- 
ciency advantages. 

The open office, hov/ever, is not 
without disadvantages. Chief 
among them is the absence of pri- 
vacy and quiet. 

Carpeting, acoustical ceilings, 
and sound-absorbent dividers 
make the space acoustically work- 
able, though open. The effect is 
supported by "masking sound." 

Work stations (the open layout 
counterpart of offices and desks) 
are kept apart visually by divider 
screens, storage units, and plants. 

After developing space and 
equipment standards for each em- 
ployee function, designers made 
detailed evaluations of open versus 
conventional plans, excluding items 
common to both plans, such as 
carpeting, window treatment, 
standard desks, chairs, and tables. 

Because WMATA's space needs 
are expected to keep changing 
rapidly over a ten-year period, cost 
estimates were projected for ten 
years. While the initial cost of a 
conventional office plan was esti- 
mated to be approximately 15 per- 
cent less than in the open plan, the 
latter could be moved five times as 
much for half the cost and could 
be maintained for 20 percent less. 

Charts, comparing parti- 
tioning systems and furnish- 
ings, indicate open layouts 
can be moved five times as 
often for half the cost. 

Conventional layout is shown 
to require rigid circulation 
patterns, while open layout 
permits traffic flexibility. 

WMATA is adopting a modi- 
fied version of open plan- 
ning, with conventional 
offices in the central core 
and open-plan work sta- 
tions along the windows. 

■!» J .tkfl 



34 Interiors and Industrial Design 

Laboratory Outfitting 
for The Salk Institute for 
Biological Studies 

San Diego, California 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Health, Education 
and Welfare, 

National Institutes of Health 
The National Foundation 
The Avalon Foundation 
Eli Lilly & Co. 
Kettering Fund 

Louis I. Kahn 
Laboratory Consultants: 
Earl L. Walls Associates 

The Salk Institute of Biological 
Studies in San Diego, California, is 
housed in a new but already widely 
known building designed by Louis 
I. Kahn. The laboratory interiors 
shown here reveal something of 
what the designer can contribute to 
science: interiors and equipment 
reliably adaptable to the perform- 
ance of varied tasks. 

Even if interior work spaces are 
badly designed, work does get 
done in them. It may suffer in qual- 
ity and in quantity, and the worker 
may suffer physically and mentally. 
But rarely is the organization or the 
employee totally prevented from 
performing tasks. 

That becomes less true as work 
becomes more highly specialized. 
Perhaps the most highly special- 
ized work of all is performed by 
scientists. The equipment they use 
has to work or they can't. 

The very nature of science im- 
poses another requirement on 
equipment: extreme adaptability. 
An assembly-line worker may per- 
form a very highly specialized task 
— so highly specialized that it must 
be performed in precisely the same 
way over and over again. If he does 
it differently he will lose his job. 
With a scientist it is just the oppo- 
site. His job is discovery, and dis- 
covery keeps changing the job. 

The Salk Institute of Biological 
Studies is conceived of as a place 
conducive to scientific creativity. 
That is what it and the new building 

Modular systems approach 
permits open or enclosed 
laboratory interiors in new 
building, recognizing im- 
portance of adaptability. 
Simplifies use, saves time. 

that houses it are for. 

The laboratory equipment is as 
new as the building for which it is 
designed. Its design began with an 
analysis of the needs of biological 
researchers. Some work is better 
performed under private or semi- 
private conditions; some work 
requires constant access to col- 
leagues. It was particularly impor- 
tant to define the relation of the 
researchers to each other and to 
the equipment and apparatus they 
would be working with. 

Each person's "thinking and 
working area" (in other words, his 
desk) was placed between his lab- 
oratory space and the window wall, 
enabling him to relate either to the 
laboratory or to the view outside. 
This option made it necessary to 
find ways — either by desk place- 
ment or draperies — to permit the 
researcher to "turn off" the outside 
environment. When that could not 
be done, according to the de- 
signer, "we found a considerable 
presence of aluminum foil or poster 
applications on the window wall." 

Toward the center of the labora- 
tory is each researcher's personal 
laboratory-work area, usually the 
laboratory bench. In the center of 
the space the designers placed 
enclosures — such as warm rooms, 
cold rooms, dark rooms, instru- 
ment rooms, centrifuge rooms — 
that relate equally well to both 
sides of the laboratory. These un- 
enclosed storage spaces make a 

Simplifies maintenance: 
basic support spline from 
which cabinets are hung 
affords plumbers and elec- 
tricians easy access. 

Casework is off the floor for 
access and maintenance 
ease. Drawers are removable 
fiberglass trays that can be 
placed in an autoclave. 

communication link from one side 
of the laboratory to the other. 

The modular interior system per- 
mits either open or enclosed space 
to be created anywhere on the 
laboratory floor when desired. 

Laboratory furniture design has 
changed very little since the first 
commercial casework was intro- 
duced more than fifty years ago, 
and the available casework was 
insufficiently adaptable and gener- 
ally inadequate for the new facil- 
ity. The designer established basic 
criteria for satisfying the needs of 
researchers in the biological sci- 
ences. Working with the manufac- 
turer, he designed a casework sys- 
tem made up of individual storage 
cabinets cantilevered from a cen- 
tral structure, permitting benches 
to be assembled with only two floor 
supports. The cantilevered cabi- 
nets can be easily moved along the 
support frames as required. 

The casework drawers are re- 
movable autoclave-proof plastic 
trays. One tray is specifically de- 
signed to accept soiled glassware, 
permitting it to undergo decontami- 
nation without having to be touched 
by clean-up personnel. 

The flexibility of the new case- 
work system has already been put 
to use. Scientists have swapped 
entire storage cases with drawers 
intact. A case can be removed 
from a support framework and re- 
attached somewhere else in about 
five minutes without special tools. 

36 Interiors and Industrial Design 

"Interior Design in IVIanned 
Spacecraft or Space 
Stations — Literature Search 

This computer read-out on 
interior design standards is 
a design dividend of the 
Apollo program. 
Space research spinoffs 
such as this are being made 
increasingly accessible 
through NASA's Technology 
Utilization Program. 

Funding Agency: 
National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Scientific and 
Technical Information Office, 
NASA Headquarters, 
Washington, D.C. 

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38 Interiors and Industrial Design 

Morgantown Personal 
Rapid Transit System 

Morgantown, West Virginia 

Performance goal: to dem- 
onstrate that a personal 
rapid transit system under 
automated control is feas- 
ible for meeting urban com- 
munity transit needs. A sys- 
tem carrying between 5000 
and 8000 passengers per 
hour would be equivalent to 
four-to-six lane highway. 

Funding Agency: 
Department of Transportation, 
Urban Mass Transportation 

Prime Contractor: 
The Boeing Company 

The vehicle shown below does not 
really look unfamiliar. Even though 
you have never seen one, you have 
been seeing pictures of similar ve- 
hicles for the past twenty-five 
years. Those were renderings or 
models. This one is a prototype 
and represents the Urban Mass 
Transportation Administration's ef- 
fort to address problems of mass 
transportation now, an effort al- 
ready visible in San Francisco's 
BART system. 

This car is part of the Morgan- 
town Personal Rapid Transit Sys- 
tem implemented in Morgantown, 
West Virginia, under UMTA's Re- 
search, Development and Demon- 
stration Program. 

Begun in 1972 and scheduled for 
revenue operations in fiscal 1975, 
the Morgantown project is de- 
signed to uncover and help solve 
typical problems that a PRT sys- 
tem would face in other cities. 

UMTA funded a 1969 feasibility 
study recommending a fully auto- 
mated system along fixed guide- 
ways. U.MTA then funded follow-up 
research and development, with 
Morgantown becoming a kind of 
vehicular model city. 

Morgantown is the home of the 
three-campus University of West 
Virginia, where at each class break 
some 1100 students depend on 17 
buses to carry them between cam- 
puses. The PRT route connects two 
of the campuses with the business 
district of Morgantown. When com- 

System will operate on 
schedule during peak peri- 
ods, on demand during 
slack periods. Vehicle size, 
small for mass transit, was 
selected for economical 
service during both periods. 

pleted, the system will use some 
75 cars running between six sta- 
tions along the guideway. 

The city's terrain precludes pe- 
destrian or bicycle paths for long 
distances. There is a feeling that 
most basic transportation prob- 
lems are represented here. 

As with Dulles Airport (page 52), 
the problems called for more than 
the mere improvement of existing 
facilities. Something truly new had 
to be tried. The PRT system is 
"personal" because, unlike other 
rapid transit systems, it is more like 
a car than like a train or bus: it 
comes when you call it. 

The vehicle not only comes 
when a passenger wants it to, it 
goes where he wants it to, as a 
self-service elevator does. 

Each vehicle can carry 21 pas- 
sengers, eight seated and 13 stand- 
ing. The cars are 1572 feet long, 
six feet wide, weigh about 8,000 
pounds when empty and run at a 
top speed of 30 miles per hour. 

A computer system operates 
PRT through the interaction of cen- 
tral control, station control and ve- 
hicle control. 

The PRT passenger will press a 
button to indicate where he wants 
to go. The system will then signal 
which car will take him there, and 
that car will automatically enter the 
guideway system in the first avail-' 
able time slot. 

The basic conceptual problem 
was to design a public transporta- 

Three off-line stations with 
multiple boarding slots con- 
nect two West Virginia Uni- 
versity campuses with Mor- 
gantown's business district 

tion system that would have the 
flexibility of autos without the at- 
tendant pollution and congestion, 
and without the delays of buses 
and subways. Intrinsic to the sys- 
tem is the concept of the vehicle's 
attending the passenger instead of 
the passenger's waiting until the 
vehicle comes along. To be eco- 
nomically feasible, particularly dur- 
ing nonpeak hours, this concept 
demands a driverless vehicle. And 
a vehicle without a driver is a ve- 
hicle that cannot be permitted to 
mix with others in traffic, so a 
guideway is necessary. 

Another way in which PRT ve- 
hicles are more like autos than tra- 
ditional public transportation is 
that the vehicles, rather than the 
track system, do the turning. Rub- 

ber guidewheels running on a ver- 
tical steering rail are electronically 
directed to left or right at each 
junction, The small, driverless ve- 
hicles are being developed in sev- 
eral alternate models, all fully auto- 
mated and all self-switching. 

In the Morgantown project UMTA 
is developing a full-scale operating 
system to explore the role of tech- 
nology in addressing mass transit 
problems. The project's signifi- 
cance lies in its applicability to the 
nation's urban transportation 
needs. "The goal," according to 
an UMTA official, is "to make this 
new system eligible for UMTA's 
capital grants program throughout 
the nation and to make the design 
available to all qualified parties on 
a nonproprietary basis." 

Cars run along elevated 
concrete guideway (shown 
at left and in cross section 
below) with power and 
steering rails along sides. 

42 Architecture 

Student Housing 

State University College 

at Brockport 

Brockport, New York 

Building components were 
fabricated in various cities, 
shipped to the site, assem- 
bled on a rail-mounted 
production line and trucked 
to the crane. 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 
Dormitory Autliority of 
tfie State of New York 

Design/Build Team: 

Caudill Rowlett Scott, Arcliitects 

M. Paul Friedberg & Associates, 

Landscape Architects 

The Engineers Collaborative 

W. E. O'Neill Construction Co. 

In April 1972, the ground breaking 
took place for student housing on 
the Brockport campus of the State 
University of New York. Due to the 
efficient and rapid life-cycle cost- 
ing methods of the Design/Build 
System, these dormitories were 
available for Va occupancy by 
January 1973. Design/Build is one 
of many advanced industrial tech- 
nology building systems sponsored 
by the Federal Government. 

We live in a nation and an age 
characterized by mass production 
and industrial systems. Yet we 
have rarely exploited the potential 
of industrial systems in architec- 
ture. The cause is probably a blend 
of psychological resistance, pro- 
fessional resistance, and ignor- 
ance. "Systems" run counter to 
the image of the architect as giver 
of form, though they needn't do so. 
"Systems" are sometimes held up 
as examples of the brutalizing ef- 
fect of industry, although they 
needn't be. 

What brought systems construc- 
tion to the Brockport campus of 
the State University of New York 
was the same urgent need discern- 
ible at campuses both private and 
public across the country: student 
housing is becoming less satisfac- 
tory as it becomes more costly. 

The design emerged from an 
imaginative exercise in bidding 
and evaluation for construction 
contracting, New York State's Dor- 
mitory Authority eliminated price 

Dormitory area is designed 
as an apartment complex 
organized to accommodate 
students, trees, walkways. 
This project goal was found 
to be perfectly compatible 
with a systems approach to 

as a bidding factor by specifying 
$5,825,000 for the project.. (This 
comes to $5,825 per bed as com- 
pared to the average of $8,300 per 
bed the Dormitory Authority had 
been paying for dormitories.) An 
elaborate evaluation system 
weighed each element on its mer- 
its, with extra points for merit in 
areas of special importance to the 
Dormitory Authority and consulting 
teams. Acting as consultants in the 
evaluation system were four teams 
of architects, engineers, interior 
designers, students, faculty and 

The result is Design/Build— a 
French building system adapted by 

American architects, landscape 
architects, and engineers. 

Design/Build has been de- 
scribed as "a series of procedures 
that make building erection more 
efficient." Components are assem- 
bled on-site on a rail-mounted 
production line, then lifted into 
place. Columns are bolted to the 
foundation, to which trays are at- 
tached accommodating all wiring, 
piping, and ducts. 

Completed 1 8 months after plan- 
ning, as compared with the 30 to 
48 months normally required, 
Design/Build is a successful ex- 
periment in the turnkey approach 
to dormitory project delivery. 

Lightweight, factory-made 
frammg panels are hoisted 
mto place by crane, fully 

44 Architecture 

St. Francis Square 
Housing Project 

San Francisco, California 

Funding Agencies: 

Departnnent of Housing 

and Urban Development 

Joint Pension Fund, 


Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's 

Union, Pacific Maritime Association 

Marquis & Stoller 
Landscape Architects: 
Lawrence Halprin & Associates 

St. Francis Square is a moderate- 
to low-income housing project in 
San Francisco, financed under 
Section 221 (d)(3) of the U.S. Hous- 
ing Code in 1962 and completed 
in 1964. It consists of 299 garden 
apartments, most of them with two 
or three bedrooms. 

Unusually well maintained by 
the people who live there, the 
housing project is characterized by 
a high occupancy and by a low 
crime rate in a high crime area. 

Because there are no through 
streets, small children are able to 
go out of doors unattended and 
nonresidents are discouraged 
from using the public facilities. The 
sense of community is enhanced 
by the fact that the buildings are all 
turned inward, so that all living 
rooms face interior open space. 
This also strengthens both physical 
and psychological security. 

Low rise housing complex 
with no through streets uses 
generous landscaping to 
create safe, well maintained 

By arranging the buildings in 
three separate rectangles around 
distinct interior courts the design- 
ers laid the framework for sub- 
communities. Each court has both 
service and play facilities serving 
about 100 families. 

Landscaping is generous, at- 
tracting residents to the outdoor 
spaces and providing the visual 
continuity important to the concept 
of a single community. 

That St. Francis Square works 
ana the precise extent to which it 
works are well established by an 
intensive study made from 1967 to 
1971 by Clare Cooper and Phyllis 
Hackett of the Center of Planning 
and Development Research at the 
University of California, Berkeley. 
The study, supported in part by 
U.S. Department of Health grants, 
consisted of two analyses, from 
which the material here is drawn. 

Environment "welcomes" 
children by eliminating traf- 
fic hazards, providing grassy 
surfaces. Semi-mature trees 
were specified because they 
had a better chance to 
survive child's play. 

46 Architecture 

Eight years later the St. 
Francis Square project still 
has a waiting list for apart- 
ments, is still in excellent 
shape, is still enjoyed. 

The first analyzed design deci- 
sions, and the second surveyed 
resident satisfaction. Then the re- 
searchers put the two together to 
see whether the design decisions 
were justified by the results. 

Probably the most important de- 
sign decision was to focus atten- 
tion on the project as a whole 
rather than on individual apart- 
ments or buildings. In general, this 
was unquestionably the right deci- 
sion although it led to some errors 
in detail: insufficient storage space, 

kitchens too small to eat in. Yet the 
architect's decision to emphasize 
the whole rather than the individual 
apartments contributes to an archi- 
tectural strength that is invulner- 
able to patio screens and other de- 
tails that tenants contribute. 

One design objective was to pro- 
vide an alternative to suburbs for 
middle-income families. Three- 
quarters of the residents of St. 

Children at St. Francis can 
move safely to play areas 
throughout the project. 
Apartment balconies have 
in some cases been glassed 
in by tenants to create an 
extra room. (Opposite) 

Francis Square are middle-income, 
and one reason is that the environ- 
ment "welcomes" children. 

The emphasis on the project en- 
vironment, rather than on the indi- 
vidual units, is reflected in the fact 
that more than 90 percent of the 
residents attribute much of their 
satisfaction with St. Francis Square 
to the outdoor areas. Seventy per- 
cent of the residents rate the land- 
scaping as "very important." When 
asked which they would choose if 
given a choice between trees or a 
larger living room, trees or a larger 
kitchen, etc., more than 60 per- 
cent of the tenants said they would 
choose trees. 

Because St. Francis Square is 
located in what had been a rela- 
tively high crime area, it is particu- 
larly interesting that it meets the 
standards of "Defensible Space" 
in Oscar Newman's book of that 
title. St. Francis Square, Newman 
says, "answers almost all of the 
requirements of defensible space 
design: It defines territorial areas 
and paths of transition from public 
to private; it provides for easy and 
natural surveillance of public areas; 
communal amenities are located in 
public areas to create a casual as- 
sociation that defends commonly 
shared pursuits and focuses sur- 
veillance; the number of families 
sharing an entry is limited to six; 
and finally, the image of the project 
is that of a single-family row-house 

48 Architecture 

Everett McKinley Dirksen 

Chicago, Illinois 

Funding Agency: 
Public Buildings Service 
Government Services 

An essential public service: 
Federal courthouse and 
office building provides 
swift elevator access to 
courtrooms and large office 
areas adaptable to various 
Federal agency functions. 

Architects and Engineers: 
Schmidt Garden & Erikson 
The Ottice of Mies van der Rohe 
D. F. Murphy Associates 
A. Epstein & Sons, Inc. 

The 30-story Everett McKinley Dirk- 
sen Building is a courthouse and 
Federal office building finished in 
1965, as Phase I of the Chicago 
Federal Center. Construction for 
the two other buildings which will 
complete the complex was begun 
in the summer of 1971. The goal 
was to create a "total Government 
center which could become a 
model for other Government proj- 
ects throughout the country." 

A courthouse is a structure in 
which certain patterns of communi- 
cation are predictable. Walter H. 
Sobel, Chairman of the American 
Institute of Architects' Task Force 
on Courtroom Facilities, has iso- 
lated four types of communication 





/ 1 ( 1/ //^'^'^^^^^ 



in any courtroom: "Visual, audio, 
movement of people and docu- 
ment transfer." 

These categories of communica- 
tion involve specific roles: judge, 
lawyers, clients, bailiff, press, 
spectators, witness, court reporter, 
jurors, clerk, police officers, social 

Courthouse and office build- 
ing are part of complex that 
will include another Federal 
office building and a one- 
story Post Office. 

Courtrooms are embraced by 
general purpose office space. 

workers, etc. Any design of a Fed- 
eral courtroom should be based on 
a study of how these people actu- 
ally relate to each other and of the 
distinct physical requirements of 
private and public communication. 
A courtroom so designed won't 
make trial by jury a pleasurable 
experience. But it can help make 
It an efficient one, with concerned 
parties able to see and hear each 

other without strain. 

The prime determining factor of 
the size of floors in the Everett 
McKinley Dirksen Building was the 
size of the courtrooms and the 
amount of space required for easy 
elevator access to them. To make 
the courtrooms as accessible as 
possible, elevators were placed in 
two main cores, each located be- 
tween twin courtrooms. 

50 Architecture 

Old Buildings Restored 

The Patent Office building 
in Washington, D.C. has 
been transformed for radi- 
cally different use: to house 
The National Collection of 
Fine Arts and The National 
Portrait Gallery. 

St. Louis's Old Post Office 
combines the solidity of a 
fortress, including under- 
ground tunnels and a 25- 
foot moat, with the elegance 
of grand staircases, Vene- 
tian curved fireplaces, 
vaulted ceilings. Plans for 
commercial redevelopment 
include construction of a 
6,000-square-foot skylight 
over the existing courtyard. 

Funding Agencies: 

(The National Collection 
of Fine Arts and 
The National Portrait Gallery) 
Smithsonian Institution 

(Old St. Louis Post Office) 
Public Buildings Service 
Government Services Administration 

(Renwick Gallery) 
Smithsonian Institution 


(The National Collection 

of Fine Arts and 

The National Portrait Gallery) 

Faulkner, Stenhouse, 

Fryer & Faulkner 

(Old St. Louis Post Office) 
Peckham-Guyton, Incorporated 

(Renwick Gallery) 

John Carl Warnecke and Associates 

Hugh Newell Jacobsen & Associates 

Most of the case studies in tliis 
book are examples of some kind 
of innovation. The three buildings 
presented here are also innovative 
in the use of materials and tech- 
niques. They are not directed to- 
ward the solution of new problems, 
however, but rather toward the 
preservation of traditional values. 
They show the role of design in 
saving the past. And the past is 
one of our most important re- 
sources for the future. 

Government is the logical 
agency for preserving these values. 
General Services Administration, 
the Department of the Interior, and 
the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development are the Fed- 
eral agencies that have been most 
influential in funding restoration. 

The National Collection of Fine 
Arts and the National Portrait Gal- 
lery are housed in the old Patent 
Office Building, which had been 
scheduled for demolition in the 
fifties. The General Services Ad- 
ministration, which had planned to 
do away with the building in order 
to create space for a parking lot, 
responded to public and private 
pressures in favor of saving the 

At the time restoration began 
the original interior design was 
largely hidden behind partitions, 
many of which were removed in 
the restoration process. 

The restored building is one of 
the major recent tourist attractions 

The Renwick Gallery in 
Washington, D.C. was built 
in 1858 as the first Corcoran 
Gallery of Art. It has been 
restored to serve as the 
Smithsonian Institution's 
museum of design, crafts 
and decorative arts. 

in Washington's downtown urban 
renewal area. 

The Renwick Gallery, National 
Collection of Fine Arts, opened in 
1971 after a sustained public con- 
troversy in the sixties about 
whether it should be torn down in 
favor of a park. A feasibility study 
by the designers concluded that 
the gallery could reasonably be re- 
stored to its original function, al- 
though the effect of weather ex- 
tremes on the building's intricate 
structure had left 90 percent of its 
ornamental work in ruins. Even 
after the facade was cleaned, ex- 
perts were unable to make out 
many of the original motifs. A 
search through Library of Congress 
records and other old files yielded 
the original 19th century architec- 
tural specifications and a number 
of Matthew Brady photographs. 
When the photographs were blown 

up, considerable detailing was vis- 
ible — roundels, garlands, festoons, 
keystones, capitals — and could be 
authentically restored. 

In 1880, when the old Post Of- 
fice in St. Louis was built, its con- 
struction was considered an out- 
standing example of the architec- 
tural use of advanced technology. 
The Chicago fire of 1871 had fo- 
cused attention on fireproof con- 
struction, which was accomplished 
in the old Post Office by building 
arches between the bottom flanges 
of the iron beams with ordinary 
bricks on edge. After a series of 
cliff-hanging public episodes, the 
precise fate of the old Post Office 
has still not been determined, but 
it will not be destroyed. There are 
plans to use the building for a 
commercial development, pending 
conveyance to developers by the 
General Services Administration. 

52 Architecture 

Dulles International Airport 

Chantilly, Virginia 

Federal Agency: 
Department of Transportation, 
Federal Aviation Administration 

Architects and Engineers: 
Ammann & Whitney 
Eero Saarinen 
Burns & McDonnell 
Ellery Husted 

Dulles International Airport was 
dedicated in November, 1962, as a 
public airport owned by the Fed- 
eral Government. 

Except for the problem of getting 
a cab driver to go there, Dulles In- 
ternational Airport is the world's 
most conveniently designed travel 
terminal. The architect, Eero Saari- 
nen, has been called "the most 
professional of architects but an 
amateur airport designer," and the 
excellence of Dulles has been at- 
tributed to his amateur standing. 
In fact what a designer brings to a 
client is expertness in solving prob- 
lems rather than specialized knowl- 
edge of a client's business. It is the 
very lack of such specialization 
that often enables a designer to see 
problems clearly, objectively, and 
in a new light. 

Dulles has a number of signifi- 
cantly unique features, and surely 
the most important of these is the 
mobile lounge. Predicated on the 
conviction of the engineers and ar- 
chitects that there had to be a bet- 
ter way of handling passengers, 
the idea from the very beginning 
was to bring the passenger to the 
plane ratherthan bringing the plane 
to the passenger. This would avoid 
the expensive, awkward and tiring 
"fingers" of most jet airports. The 
simplest way of accomplishing this 
would have been to use buses, as 
many European airports do. But 
Saarinen believed that the solution 
to a jet-age terminal had to reside 

Widely celebrated as an 
architectural expression of 
the jet age, Dulles Interna- 
tional Airport is as carefully 
thought out as it looks. The 
terminal building, the run- 
ways, the approaches and 
the interior details are all 
designed for the convenient 
and swift handling of both 
passengers and planes. 

in the aichilecture. 

The now-famous solution is the 
mobile lounge — a part of the termi- 
nal that detaches itself from the 
rest of the building as required. 
The concept of the mobile lounge 
is so logical that it is hard in retro- 
spect to remember what an auda- 
cious idea it seemed at the time. 
In order to convince the airline 
management of the mobile 
lounges' reasonableness, Charles 
Eames was asked to prepare a 
short film. The result was "The Ex- 
panding Airport," produced for an 
audience of airline executives. It 
was instrumental in getting the 
lounges built. 

A fleet of 21 lounges had been 
built by the time the airport opened 

Passengers enter the termi- 
nal building between the 
outward-sloping concrete 
piers that make the ap- 
proach so dramatic. Every 
step of the way from ter- 
minal doorway to plane is 
the result of study by 
designers and engineers. 

54 Architecture 

Because the Mobile Lounge 
concept eliminated the need 
for long pedestrian "fin- 
gers", the architects were 
able to make the terminal 
building unified and com- 
pact. Departing passengers 
enter directly in front of 
ticket counters, then cross 
the 150-foot wide building 
to the gate, which opens 
into the mobile lounge. 

The lounge carries passen- 
gers to the planes without 
requiring the ramps or 
stairs used in European 
bus-loading systems. 

The lounges are docked at 
the main concourse level. 
The gate is the gate to a 
departure lounge rather 
than to the plane. 

in 1 962. Each is powered by a 1 72- 
lip engine. Each lounge holds 102 
passengers with 71 of them seated. 
The lounge is 54 feet long, 16 feet 
wide, 17y2 feet high, and weighs 
76,000 pounds. With the advent of 
the 747 and the DC-10, modifica- 
tion in the design of the lounges 
was required, and there are now 
12 "second generation" units. 

Not all Dulles flights use the mo- 
bile lounge. Local feeder lines, ex- 
ecutive planes, and helicopters can 
taxi directly to an apron in front of 
the terminal building, for conven- 
tional loading and unloading from 
ground level. 

The design of the lounge is illus- 
trative of the way in which design 
can achieve more than a client ini- 
tially expects it to, Saarinen re- 
marked that "no one asked us to 
grapple with the problem of a jet- 
age terminal beyond the question 
of pure architecture." But the ar- 
chitects and the engineers made 
an analysis of the entire problem. 
This included an investigation of jet 
manufacture and operation, high- 
way and environmental factors, 
flight schedules, baggage han- 
dling, economics, stores and other 
services, and — most important of 
all — what people do at airports — 
how an airport works. 

The data yielded by this research 
were reduced to a series of 40 
charts that pinpointed three critical 
areas. The first was the difficulty of 
getting passengers to and from 

56 Architecture 

The interior has the char- 
acter of a departure lounge, 
not of a bus. And it has 
space for hand luggage. 
Capacity of this lounge is 
102, with 71 seated. 

planes, a difficulty that was sure 
to be magnified by the jet age. The 
second was the enormous cost of 
taxiing jet aircraft. The third was 
the need for flexibility in servicing 
aircraft. The mobile lounge ad- 
dresses all three points. 

The attention to detail that char- 
acterizes the mobile lounge ap- 
plies to the entire airport. The run- 
ways have 25-foot-wide paved 
shoulders to prevent the jet en- 
gines from sucking in dirt and 
debris. The two-level terminal 
building is 600 feet long and can 
be expanded to 1,800 feet by the 
addition of a 600-foot extension at 
either end. 

The main roof of the terminal is 
supported by a row of reinforced 
concrete frames. Supporting col- 
umns, founded in rock at their 
base, are connected by a rein- 
forced concrete edged beam at 
their head. Any inward overturning 
force applied to the base of the 

frames by the suspended roof is 
counteracted by the main floor act- 
ing as a horizontal strut. 

The parking lot is slightly lower 
than the terminal ground floor, per- 
mitting three levels at the front of 
the terminal. The result is a passen- 
ger flow that separates arriving and 
departing passengers so effectively 
that the terminal building is uncon- 
gested even at peak times. 

The easily installed, maintained 
and cleaned tandem seating — now 
a part of airport interiors the world 
over — was developed by Charles 
Eames for Dulles. 

Taxiways run parallel to runways, 
to which they are linked by high- 
speed turnoffs. This makes it pos- 
sible for a plane to leave a runway 
at a speed of 65 miles per hour. 

The cost of Dulles International 
Airport, including the limited-ac- 
cess highway, was $108.3 million. 
Construction costs are expected to 
be recovered in the first 30 years. 

Driver cabs are located at 
each end of the lounge. The 
vehicles are 54 feet long, 
16 feet wide. 

58 Architecture 

Grand Coulee 
Third Power Plant 

Columbia Basin, 
State of Washington 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Reclamation 

"Corrugation" of concrete 
increases strength for sup- 
porting large loads imposed ,™.r vm*^s.»- *-^v-x 
by the lifting machinery. ^„^^n,V./ -:.V?H; v.^^: ■'■fe^'^- 

Environmental planning 

Kenneth W. Brooks, 

Consulting Architects: 

Marcel Breuer 

and Hamilton P Smith 

with Thomas Hayes, Associate 

Architects and Engineers 

Bureau of Reclamation, ^»- 

Engineering .^^ 

and Research Center 

Visitors will park at top of 
Forebay Dam, walk along 
lip of dam to elevator sta- 
tion, descend to mid-station 
by means of glass enclosed 
inclined elevator. Observa- 
tion balcony is cantilevered 
from trussed 



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60 Architecture 

Visitor access route in cross 
section shows options: not 
everyone has to take the 
same tour. Full tour roughly 
parallels flow of water from 
Forebay Dam through the 
pen stocks, through the 
Third Power Plant and into 
the river downstream. 

Plan view shows existing 
dam, new Forebay dam, pen- 
stocks, an^ Third Power Plant. 

The Department of the Interior's 
Bureau of Reclannation has the del- 
icate job of exploiting the environ- 
ment on one hand, while protecting 
and preserving it on the other. 
Moreover, it has to accomplish all 
this in public: tens of millions of 
visitors use the Bureau's reservoirs 
for recreation, and hundreds of 
thousands more tour the sites dur- 
ing construction. 

The Third Power Plant at Grand 
Coulee and Forebay dams will be 
the world's largest power com- 
plex. Each of the six generators in 
the Third Power Plant alone will 
have a capacity of 600 thousand 

The architecture has a function 
beyond merely housing the gen- 
erators. Its purpose is to enhance 

a visit to the dam and make it un- 
derstandable. Because of the maj- 
esty of the natural setting and the 
hugeness of the power project, the 
choice of a designer was espe- 
cially sensitive. 

The Bureau has its own Board 
of Environmental Consultants, and 
it was the Board that recommended 
Marcel Breuer and Associates as 
architects for the Third Power 
Plant and related visitors center. 

Breuer chose to use reinforced 
concrete, eliminating the need for 
a steel structural skeleton. The 
scale of the power complex is, if 
anything, intensified; the building's 
profiled walls are cantilevered up 
out of bedrock, the multifaceted 
panels contrapuntally playing 
against the dam's stolid mass. 

Third Power Plant, shown 
here during construction, is 
designed to be integrated 
with Grand Coulee Dam and 
the new Forebay Dam. 

64 Landscaped Environment 

Dallas Urban Design 
Programs and Strategies 

Dallas, Texas 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 
City of Dallas 


Weiming Lu and staff of thie 

Urban Design Office, 

City of Dallas 

Ecological Study Consultant: 

Phillip Lewis 

With an average of 3500 
acres of land developed and 
urbanized each year, Dallas 
may be the fastest-growing 
metropolis in the country. To 
try to make this growth benign 
the city's urban designers 
are conducting 24 separate 
planning programs. 


These maps are computer 
print-outs indicating eco- 
logical data relating to the 
area shown at left in aerial 
view and plan. 

The Urban Design Office, Dallas 
Department of Planning and Ur- 
ban Development is in the midst of 
an urban design plan that tries to 
tackle environmental problems on 
all fronts simultaneously. It con- 
sists of 24 distinct operational 
programs in ecology, historic pres- 
ervation, sign ordinances, com- 
mercial districts, pedestrian and 
vehicular arteries, mini-parks, 
bond-financed capital improve- 
ment, fire protection, recreational 
facilities, storm drainage, neigh- 
borhood improvement, tree ordi- 
nances, land use, and housing. 

Dallas is the eighth largest city 
in the nation, with a population of 
900,000. The planners anticipate 
that by the year 2000 the popula- 
tion will more than triple. 

The urban plan is most unusual 
in its comprehensiveness, in the 
number of areas of urban concern 
it touches on, in the depth in which 
it treats them, and in the variety of 
methods by which supporting data 
are gathered. In seeking to create 
a design responsive to the needs 
of Dallas citizens, the planners 
consistently turn directly to the citi- 
zens themselves for help. This 
process consists in part of a sur- 
vey of how Dallas looks to the peo- 
ple who live there and in part of a 
concentrated campaign to tell peo- 
ple about the planning process and 
the progress being made. Since 
1965 the city has conducted a 
"Goals for Dallas" program, in 




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which more than 100,000 residents 
have participated, 

The 16-man urban design team 
is interdisciplinary and includes 
architects, graphic designers, in- 
dustrial designers, urban planners, 
political scientists, and ecologists. 
Their planning procedure is based 
on a physical inventory of all ele- 
ments in the community that are 
sensate and measurable: every- 
thing that can be seen, touched, 
smelled, heard or described in 
physical terms. 

The result is a series of ecologi- 
cal maps of 31 elements in an area 
of approximately 40,000 square 
miles. Weiming Lu, who directs the 
urban planning project, believes 
that a rational approach to the 
city's environmental problems is 
impossible without a comprehen- 
sive environmental data base. Dr. 
Philip Lewis, a Wisconsin envi- 
ronmental scientist, developed the 
study. The maps shown here are 
produced by a computer program 
initially developed for the Wiscon- 
sin Light and Power Company. 

The computer program provides 
a stored data base and a series of 
computerized maps showing the 
area distribution of each element 
in the data bank. The maps shown 
here isolate the particular catego- 
ries of environmental data and dis- 
play it free of the other material 
found on maps normally. The map 
and photograph on page 64 show 
areas the printouts relate to. 

The effect of the Dallas eco- 
logical study depends on 
the ability of planners to 
influence decisions. The 
study serves both as a data 
resource and an instrument 
of persuasion designed to 
supplement the other urban 

Each map is a graph of environ- 
mental vulnerability, showing in de- 
tail just where certain stresses can 
or cannot be withstood. This is as 
essential in environmental plan- 
ning as it was essential for Apollo 
planners to know the physiological 
stresses the astronauts would be 
subject to in space. Data were col- 
lected from such varied sources as 
geological survey maps, NASA 
space photographs, bird-watching 
records, and other field work. 
Then the data were copied onto 
a form that could be optically 
scanned — a service performed by 
volunteers from the League of 
Women Voters and other groups. 

Actually, two sets of maps have 
been generated. One provides a 
detailed examination of the 900- 
square-mile Dallas County area. 
The other provides a regional over- 
view covering approximately 40,- 
000 square miles. The regional 
overview takes the form of a series 
of overlays on a base map. Its pri- 
mary uses are to monitor regional 
change in terms of critical re- 
sources and to display Dallas in its 
ecological context. Interestingly, 
neither the Planning and Urban De- 
velopment Department, nor the 
City of Dallas itself has any control 
or much influence over the land use 
outside the city limits. But, Lu ob- 
serves, "the political boundary 
does not relate to the natural fea- 
tures at all. In order to protect 
Dallas we have to look beyond." 

68 Landscaped Environment 

Spaces for Recreation 

The Court of Ideas is a Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania neigh- 
borhood center in which de- 
sign process has become 
integral to community life. 
The project was not de- 
signed for the community, 
but designed and built by 
the community, and con- 
tinues to be. 

Tyson Park is an economi- 
cally maintained leisure cen- 
ter attracting large numbers 
of Knoxville residents and 
University of Tennessee 

Funding Agencies: 

(The Court of Ideas) 
Office of Economic Opportunity; 
Pittsburgh Parks and Playgrounds 
Society; Carnegie-Mellon University 

(Tyson Park) 
Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 
City of Knoxville 

(Harlem River Bronx State Park) 

Department of the Interior 

Nevj York State Park Commission 


(The Court of Ideas) 
Community Design Associates 
The Organizers 

(Tyson Park) 

Oliphant and Kersey, Incorporated 

(Harlem River Bronx State Park) 
M. Paul Friedberg & Associates 

We need more than one kind of 
recreational area. The three pic- 
tured here perform distinct func- 
tions. What they have in common 
is their recognition of the design 
imperative in play for both children 
and adults. 

Tyson Park in Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee, is the most conventional of 
the three. It was redeveloped in 
1970 with $90,000 of local money 
and $81,000 of an Open Space 
Grant from the Department of 
Housing and Urban Development. 

The heavy wooden playground 
equipment has been almost main- 
tenance free, except for the routine 
replacement of swing hangers and 
seats. The park is designed for 
people of all ages and, curiously, 
the major attraction for all age 
groups is the playground area. The 
high intensity of park use since re- 
development was completed has 
virtually eliminated vandalism in 
Tyson Park. 

Harlem River Bronx State Park 
is an effort to integrate open-space 
parkland into the full life of the 
city, and transform the latter in the 
process. It is predicated on the de- 
signer's view that large-scale state 
and Federal parks cannot serve 
cities well because people have to 
leave the cities to get to them. 
Neither is the city served by small- 
scale escape parks that provide no 
more than a breath of fresh air. 
This park is intended as part of 
city life, with the park's theaters, 

swimming pools, sl<ating rinks and 
malls spilling into the commercial 
and residential areas. 

A particularly appealing feature 
of this park is the promise it holds 
of restoring the Harlem River to 
recreational use. It is possible to 
live in New York City for years with- 
out ever noticing that Manhattan is 
an island. Parks like this one should 
help make it impossible. 

The Harlem River Park Housing 
towers, under development in con- 
junction with the park, contain 
2000 units of low- and middle-in- 
come housing. 

The Court of Ideas is not a park 
or a playground or, for that matter, 
a court. It is the first step in Archi- 
tecture 2001 , a program that seeks 
to rehabilitate both neighborhoods 
and people without drawing any 
hard lines about which is which. 

In a back lot at 2001 Centre 
Street in Pittsburgh's largely black 
Hill District, the Court of Ideas rep- 
resents a new level of situation de- 
sign. This outdoor amphitheater 
and recreation area was designed 
to be created by community in- 
volvement. It was built by a team of 
architectural students and neigh- 
borhood residents, including ad- 
dicts and ex addicts (one of whom 
was job captain). Its roots in com- 
munity involvement, the project 
continues with workshops, jazz, rap 
sessions, poetry readings that grow 
out of the community and back 
into it. 

On 65 acres of Harlem River 
waterfront a new kind of 
park is in the works — one 
that uses open space to 
bring elements of the city 
together, rather than to pro- 
vide a refuge from them. 

70 Landscaped Environment 

"State of Hawaii 
Land Use Districts 
and Regulations Review" 

State of Hawaii 

Location, economy and his- 
tory combine to place the 
Hawaiian environment in 
urgent need of protection. 
But the state has a land use 
law designed to protect it. 

Map of Island of Maui shows 
urban, rural, agricultural 
and conservation bounda- 
ries for land use. 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Housing 
and Urban Development 
State of Hawaii Land 
Use Commission 

Architects, Planners 

and Landscape Architects: 

Eckbo, Dean, Austin & Williams 

Maui's natural and cultural 
resource areas are divided 
into existing parks, pro- 
posed parks, general scenic 
areas, special scenic sites, 
historic sites, and the sandy 
beaches for which the 
islands are celebrated. 

Planning depends on a variety of 
tools, some of them cultural, some 
political, some legislative. Since 
cultural and political scenes shift 
unpredictably, and because laws 
change, the tools in the planning 
process must be surveyed from 
time to time. The need to do this is 
made more urgent by the fact that 
professional planners are in the 
business of forging new tools and 
refining existing ones. 

This study is a review of land 
use districts and regulations for 
the State of Hawaii. It came about, 
and remains valid, because of Ha- 
waii's unique land use law. In the 

72 Landscaped Environment 

Map of present agricultural 
uses on Maui distinguishes 
cultivated lands, lands now 
used for grazing, and dis- 
tricts that are already urban. 

opinion of the designers who per- 
fornned the study, "Hawaii is the 
only state in the union with virtually 
all of the tools, in law and in oper- 
ation, for protection of irreplaceable 
land resources." 

Design is the means of realizing 
the possibilities inherent in this leg- 
islation. The study is a protective 
review program, analyzing the ob- 
jectives of the land use act, land 
use commission procedures, tax- 
ation policies, boundary agricul- 
tural land preservation, and shore 

Based on an island economy de- 
pendent on military bases, sugar 

Map depicts Island of Maui 
in terms of soils with high 
agricultural potential. Maui 
is the state's second largest 
area of prime agricultural 

cane and pineapple, pre-statehood 
Hawaii found in tourism its major 
Inope and its major tinreat. Environ- 
mental protection is especially im- 
portant to Hawaii but the principles 
are as valid for all our states. 

These maps depict the island of 
Maui, showing its urban, rural, ag- 
ricultural, and conservation land 
use district boundaries. With a 
population of 46,656, Maui is, after 
Oahu, the second-largest area of 
prime agricultural land in the state. 

74 Landscaped Environment 

Auditorium Forecourt 

Portland, Oregon 

Facing Portland's remod- 
eled civic auditorium, the 
Forecourt Fountain fills an 
entire city block. People 
use it as a many-leveled 
garden of concrete, grass, 
trees and water. 

Funding Agencies: 
Department of Housing and 
Urban Development 
City of Portland 
Tax Increment Funds 


Lawrence Halprin & Associates 

Effective design of public 
services is itself an essen- 
tial public service, as in this 
watery culmination of a 
sequence of parks, plazas, 
malls and promenades con- 
necting downtown Portland 
with an urban renewal area. 

The Auditorium Forecourt Foun- 
tain in Portland, Oregon, has been 
called "one of the most important 
urban spaces since the Renais- 
sance" by New York Times archi- 
tecture critic Ada Louise Huxtable. 
She went on to describe it as a 
throwback to "public city spaces 
of deliberately conceived beauty 
and pleasurable utility." The foun- 
tain, which was designed for the 
Portland Development Commis- 
sion as part of a HUD Urban Re- 
newal Program, takes up an entire 
city block. Both the fountain and 
the eight-block-long sequence of 
pedestrian open spaces of which 
it is a part were designed by Law- 
rence Halprin & Associates. 

In 1966 the land was purchased 
by the Portland Development Com- 
mission with HUD assistance to be 
used as open space, countering 
vehicular use of the streets, 

The design is based on the no- 
tion of bringing the cascades of 
Portland's High Sierras into the city 
itself. But it is not a simple, literal 
imitation of nature. It consists of a 
configuration of concrete tiers, 
through which water winds, culmi- 
nating in a massive waterfall 80 
feet across and almost 20 feet high. 

The central concern of the de- 
signers was to create an area that 
people of all ages and types would 
use in a variety of ways. They do 
use it in a variety of ways — for 
walking, wading, reading, picnick- 
ing, and watching others. 

Eighteen-foot cascade 
pours over battered tapered 
walls constructed by means 
of continuous concrete pours 
and irregular board forming. 

One of the design problems 
most resistant to solution is the 
problem of keeping the sense of 
natural resources alive in an urban 
environment. The Auditorium Fore- 
court Fountain (a preposterously 
pedestrian name for so lyrical a 
project) is dominated by v\/ater, not 
just in the obvious sense of scale, 
but by the fact that people actually 
soak themselves and splash in it. 

Built at a cost of $498,000 (the 
land itself cost $534,000), the de- 
sign called for continuous concrete 
pouring of the walls and hand- 
placing of the boulder-stone ag- 
gregate used in the floor of the 
pools and channels. Seating facili- 
ties, lighting, and trash containers 
are all built in. 

Safety — as related to both acci- 
dents and crime — is a basic prob- 
lem in the design of public spaces, 
especially one such as this. The 

client, the designers, and the pub- 
lic at large attribute the park's suc- 
cess in safety and maintenance to 
date to the "Wonderwolf Patrol." 
This is a volunteer patrol of teen- 
agers recruited by the Portland De- 
velopment Commission to watch 
over the Fountain and the people 
who use it. The patrol so far has 
turned out to be an effective, gentle 
agent for enforcing the rules 
where necessary. There is aston- 
ishingly little resentment, and their 
presence has to be regarded as 
one of the most desirable features 
of the project. 

The Auditorium Forecourt Foun- 
tain is both an expression of com- 
munity pride and a cause of it. 
Teenagers volunteer for the patrol 
out of a sense of pride in the de- 
signed environment. Their work is 
effective largely because the pub- 
lic generally shares this pride. 

76 Landscaped Environment 

Designed-in safety and 
maintenance features are 
supplemented by a volun- 
teer patrol of young park 
users who are proud of the 
facility and feel responsible 
for protecting it. Other users 
cooperate willingly. 

All lighting, trash contain- 
ers, benches and other 
seating surfaces are cast 
in place. Since the Fore- 
court serves as an amphi- 
theatre, lighting had to be 
designed to serve that pur- 
pose as well as those of se- 
curity and dramatic effect. 

Residents like to look at the 
falls and listen to them and 
look at others looking at 
and listening to them. 

A space for public enjoy- 
ment, Portland's fountain 
plaza contributes to the 
rhythm of the city's daily life: 
at 11 :00 each morning the 
falls are turned on, a joyous 
daily public spectacle. 

Credits and 

Visual Communications 

Interiors and Industrial Design 



National Park Service Minifolders 

Client and Funding Agency: Depart- 
ment of the Interior, National Park 

Designers; National Park Service, 
Division of Publications Staff, 
Vincent Gleason, Chief. 


Internal Revenue Service 

'Teaching Taxes" program 

Client and Funding Agency: Depart- 
ment of the Treasury, Internal 
Revenue Service. 

Designers: IRS Publishing Services 
Branch Design Group, Larry Rolufs, 
Design Manager; "The Teacher's 
Guide" (Publication 19), "Under- 
standing Taxes", General Edition 
(Publication 21), "Understanding 
Taxes", Farm Edition (Publication 
22), David Haussman, Designer; 
"Farmer's Tax Guide: Income and 
Self-Employment Tax" (Publication 
225), Betty Moran, Designer. 


Internal Revenue Service Recruiting 


Client and Funding Agency: Depart- 
ment of the Treasury, Internal 
Revenue Service. 

Designers: IRS Publishing Services 
Branch Design Group, Larry Rolufs, 
Design Manager; 
"A New Dimension in Taxation" 
(Publication 618), "Treasury En- 
forcement Agent" (Publication 619), 
"Tax Auditor" (Publication 620), 
"Revenue Agent" (Publication 621), 
"Revenue Officer" (Publication 622), 
"Internal Auditor" (Publication 652), 
Dick Servatius, Designer. 


United States Postal Service Design 

Control Guidelines 

Client and Funding Agency: United 

States Postal Service. 
Designers: United States Postal 

Service, Creative Services, Vincent 

Hoffman, Division Manager; 

Raymond Loewy/William Snaith, 



USIA Design Manual 

Client and Funding Agency: United 

States Information Agency. 
Designer: United States Information 

Agency, Robert Sivard, Art Director. 


'Atoms At Work" 

Client and Funding Agency: Atomic 

Energy Commission. 
Architect: Victor Lundy; Planning and 

Coordination: Albert H. Woods; 

Exhibit Design: Carlos Ramirez; 

Film Production: Francis Thompson. 


The Acorn School 

New York, New York 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Interest Supplement on Rental and 
Cooperative Housing Mortgage, 
Phipps Houses. 

Client: Phipps Houses. 

Architects:, Mayers & Schiff; Mechani- 
cal and Electrical Engineers: 
Andreassen Associates; General 
Contractor: Harvy Construction 

Net Area: 54,000 sq. ft. 


Space Planning and Interior Design 
Study for the Operations Control 
Center Building for the Washington 
Metropolitan Area Transit Authority 
Washington, D.C. 

Client and Funding Agency: Washing- 
ton Metropolitan Area Transit 
Architects and Planners: Keyes, Leth- 
bridge and Condon, Associate in 
Charge of Design, Jack McCartney. 


Laboratory Outfitting for The Salk 

Institute for Biological Studies 

San Diego, California 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Health, Education and Welfare, 
National Institutes of Health, Health 
Research Facilities Grant 
#FR-03136; The National Founda- 
tion; The Avalon Foundation; Eli 
Lilly & Co.; Kettering Fund. 

Client: The Salk Institute. 

Architect: Louis I. Kahn, Project Archi- 
tect, John E. MacAllister; Laboratory 
Consultants: Earl L. Walls Associ- 
ates, Project Manager, Ulrich M. 
Lindner; Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineers: Fred S. Dubin Associ- 
ates; General Contractor: George A. 
Fuller Co. 

Net Laboratory Area: 48,750 sq. ft. 


'Interior Design in Manned 
Spacecraft or Space Stations, 
Literature Search #20724" 

Client and Funding Agency: National 
Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, Scientific and Technical Infor- 
mation Office, NASA Headquarters. 

Prepared at the request of the First 
Federal Design Assembly. 


Morgantown Personal Rapid 

Transit System 

Morgantown, West Virginia 
Client and Funding Agency: Depart- 
ment of Transportation, Urban Mass 
Transportation Administration. 
Prime Contractor: The Boeing Com- 
pany; Subcontractors: Frederic R. 
Harris, Inc., A&E design of guideway 
and structures; Corbett, Thornberg, 
Stechow, Jordan, architects of 
guideway and structures; Alden, 
Self-Transit Systems Corp., design 
and manufacture of power head and 
steering system, manufacture of 
passenger module; Frank Irey Jr., 
Inc., A&E construction; The Mel- 
bourne Bros. Construction Co., A&E 
construction; Trumbull Corporation, 
A&E construction; The Bendix 
Corporation, Aerospace Systems 
Division, design and manufacture 
of control and communication sys- 
tem; Digital Equipment Corporation, 
manufacture of computers; Systems 
Development Corporation, design 
of software; Barnes and Brass Com- 
pany, installation of control and 
communication system; Avtek Sys- 
tems, Inc., design and manufacture 
of propulsion control system. 


Student Housing 

State University College at Brockport 

Brockport, New York 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
College Housing Program, Sup- 
portive Loan, Federal Grant 
#CH-NY-288(D); Dormitory Author- 
ity of the State of New York. 

Client: Dormitory Authority of the State 
of New York, William A. Sharkey, 
Administrative Director; Douglas 
Hasbrouck, Director of Design and 
Construction Services. 

Consultants to the Dormitory Authority: 
Philip Bobrow & Associates Ltd., 
Concordia Management Ltd.; 
Design/Build Team: Caudill Rowlett 
Scott, Architects; M, Paul Friedberg 
& Associates, Landscape Architects; 
The Engineers Collaborative; W. E. 
O'Neill Construction Co. 

Site Size: 20 acres. 


St. Francis Square 

San Francisco, California 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Low and Moderate Income Housing 
Insurance; Joint Pension Fund, Inter- 
national Longshoremen's & Ware- 
housemen's Union, Pacific Maritime 

Client: St. Francis Square Cooperative 
Apartments, Inc. 

Architects: Marquis & Stoller; Struc- 
tural Engineer: Eric Elsesser; 
Mechanical and Electrical Engi- 
neers: Kenward S. Oliphant; Land- 
scape Architects: Lawrence Halprin 
& Associates; General Contractor: 
Jack Baskin. 

Site Size: 355,122 sq.ft. 

Landscaped Environment 

Everett McKinley Dirksen Building 

Chicago, Illinois 

Client and Funding Agency: Public 
Buildings Service, General 
Services Administration. 

Architects and Engineers: Schmidt 
Garden & Erikson, The Office of 
Mies van der Rohe, D. F. Murphy 
Associates, A. Epstein & Son's, Inc.; 
Superstructure Contractors: Paschen 
Contractors, Inc. and Gust K. New- 
berg Construction Co.; Substructure 
Contractors: Paschen Contractors, 
Inc. and Peter Kiewit Son's Co. 

Gross Area of Building: 1 ,365,000 
sq. ft.; Net Assignable Area of Build- 
ing: 959,000 sq. ft. 


The National Collection of Fine Arts 
and The National Portrait Gallery, 
Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D.C. 

Funding Agency: Public Buildings 
Service, General Services 

Client: Smithsonian Institution. 

Architect: Faulkner, Stenhouse, Fryer 
& Faulkner, Waldron Faulkner, 
Project Architect; Consultants: Victor 
Proetz, Bayard Underwood; Struc- 
tural Engineers: Gongwer & Kraas; 
Mechanical Engineers: Wilberding 
Company, Inc.; Egli & Gompf; 
Lighting Consultant: Stanley R. 
McCandless; Landscape Architect: 
Lester A. Collins; General Contrac- 
tor: Grunley-Walsh Construction Co. 


Old St. Louis Post Office 

St. Louis, Missouri 

Funding Agency: Public Buildings 
Service, General Services Ad- 
ministration (Pending conveyance 
under Public Law 92-362). 

Client; The Apted/Hulling Group. 

Developer, Manager, and Leasing 
Agent: The Apted/Hulling Group, 
Jim Prentice, General Manager. 

Architects, Planners, and Landscape 
Architects: Peckham-Guyton, Inc., 
Kimbal Cohn, Project Architect; 
Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineers: William Tao & Associ- 
ates, Inc.; Design Consultants: 
Burks & Landberg, Architects. 


Renwick Gallery, National Collection 

of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, D.C. 

Client and Funding Agency: Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Restoration/Phase I: Functioning 
Agent: Public Buildings Service, 
General Services Administration. 

Architects and Engineers: John Carl 
Warnecke and Associates, John Carl 
Warnecke, Principal; General Con- 
tractor and Project Manager: Amer- 
ican Construction Co., Inc., William 
Finglass, President; Prime Subcon- 
tractor for Exterior Restoration: 
Universal Restoration, Inc., Kenneth 
S. Eisenberg, President. 

Restoration/Phase II: 

Architects: Hugh Newell Jacobsen & 
Associates, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, 


Dulles International Airport 

Chantilly, Virginia 

Client: Department of Transportation, 

Federal Aviation Administration. 
Architects and Engineers: Ammann & 

Whitney, Eero Saarinen, Burns & 

McDonnell, Ellery Husted. 


Grand Coulee Third Power Plant 

Columbia Basin, State of Washington 

Client: Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Reclamation. 

Environmental Planning: Kenneth W. 

Power Plant/Consulting Architects: 
Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. 
Smith with Thomas Hayes, Associ- 
ate; Architects and Engineers: 
Bureau of Reclamation Engineering 
and Research Center, Harold G. 
Arthur, Director of Design and Con- 
struction; Contractors: Vinnell- 
Drave-Lockheed-Mannix, joint 

Visitors Center/Architects: Marcel 
Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith with 
Thomas Hayes, Associate; Exhibit 
Consultants: Chermayeff & Geismar 

Aquatic display Consultants: Lawrence 
Halprin & Associates. 


Dallas Urban Design Programs 

and Strategies 

Dallas, Texas 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Urban Planning Assistance Program, 
Federal Grant #12-130(CR); City 
of Dallas General Fund. 

Client: Department of Planning and 
Urban Development, Dallas, Texas. 

Designers: Weiming Lu and staff of the 
Urban Design Office, City of Dallas; 
Ecological Study: Phillip Lewis, 
General Consultant; Dr. Warren 
Pulich, Dr. William Mahler, Dr. L. J. 
Bartelli, Dr. Fred Gehlback, Dr. 
Charles Dodge, Richard Coffee, 
Clifford Powell, Specialists. 

The Court of Ideas 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Funding Agencies: Office of Economic 
Opportunity, CAP Grant #CG-PA- 
0133; Pittsburgh Parks and Play- 
grounds Society; Carnegie-Mellon 

Client: House of Cultures, Sidney 
Wilson, Director. 

Designers: Community Design Associ- 
ates (formerly Architecture 2001), 
Troy West, Architect; Jay Greenfield, 
Psychologist; Chucky Dial, Com- 
munity Director; Doaks Brown and 
Ronney Conners, Community Co- 
Directors; The Organizers, Ed Ellis, 
Adult Advisor; Dicky Morton, 

Site Size: 2,400 sq. ft 


Tyson Park 

Knoxville, Tennessee 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Open Space and Beautification 
Division, Tennessee Project #38; 
City of Knoxville General Fund. 

Client: City of Knoxville, Tennessee. 

Landscape Architects: Oliphant and 
Kersey, Inc.; General Contractor: 
V. L. Nicholson Company, inc. 

Site Size: 21 acres. 


Harlem River Bronx State Park 

New York, New York 

Funding Agencies: Department of the 
Interior, Federal Bureau of Outdoor 
Recreation, Federal Grant 
#31-00087; New York State Park 
Commission for the City of 
New York. 

Client: New York State Park Commis- 
sion for the City of New York. 

Designers: M. Paul Friedberg & 

Site Size: 65 acres. 

80 Credits and Acknowledgements 

About This Book 

"State of Hawaii Land Use Districts 
and Regulations Review" 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Urban Planning Grant Hawaii P-21; 
State of Hawaii Land Use Commission. 

Client: State of Hawaii Land Use 

Architects and Planners: Eckbo, Dean, 
Austin & Williams, Edward A. 
Williams, Principal in Charge; 
Howard B. Altman, Project Admin- 
istration and Urban Districts; C. 
Christopher Degenhardt, Agriculture 
and Rural Districts; Grant R, Jones, 
Conservation Districts; Consultants: 
Baxter, McDonald and Company, 
Dr. Leslie E. Carbert, Padgett, 
Greeley, Marumoto and Akinaka, 
The Environmental Analysis Group, 
Williams and IVIocine. 


Auditorium Forecourt Fountain 

Portland, Oregon 

Funding Agencies: Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, 
Urban Renewal Program, Federal 
Grant #0RE-R1 ; City of Portland 
Tax Increment Funds derived from 
the South Auditorium Urban 
Renewal Project Area. 

Client: Portland Development Com- 

Designers: Lawrence Halprin & 
Associates, Satoru Nishita, Partner 
in Charge; Byron McCulley, Project 
Director; Angela Danadjieva Tzvetin, 
Project Designer; Structural Engi- 
neers: Gilbert, Forsberg, Diekmann 
& Schmidt; Mechanical and Elec- 
trical Engineers: Beamer/Wilkinson; 
General Contractor: Schrader Co. 

Introduction, page 11: Magruder 
Environmental Therapy Complex in 
Orlando, Florida, designed by Leiand 
G. Shaw. 

The Design Necessity was conceived 
and produced for the First Federal 
Design Assembly, which was the Gov- 
ernment's initial step in a high-priority 
program to raise design standards 
throughout all Federal agencies. It is 
directed mainly toward the Federal 
administrator; however, it also provides 
a definition of design ideas and goals 
for design performance crucial to the 

Ttie Design Necessity is a collection of 
designs supported by the Federal 
Government and chosen on the basis 
of performance — case studies of Fed- 
eral projects that work because they 
were designed to work. These projects 
illustrate aspects of the design process 
in which objects, systems, and en- 
vironments are related to people. 

The book further asserts that: there are 
sound, proven criteria for judging 
design effectiveness; design is an 
urgent requirement, not a cosmetic 
addition; design can save money; it 
can save time; it enhances communi- 
cation; it simplifies use, simplifies 
manufacture, simplifies maintenance; 
the design necessity is recognizably 
present in projects ranging in scale 
and complexity from a postage stamp 
to a highway system; the absence of 
design is a hazardous kind of design 
{not to design is to suffer the costly 
consequences of design by default); 
on any given project, designers and 
government officials have the same 
basic goal — performance; and effec- 
tive design of public services is itself 
an essential public service. 

Ivan Chermayeff, a designer from New 
York City, and Richard Saul Wurman, 
an architect and planner from Philadel- 
phia, served as program co-chairmen 
of the Assembly. Ralph Caplan is a 
writer and Peter Bradford a designer, 
both from New York City. 

Federal Council on the Arts 
and the Humanities 

S. Dillon Ripley (Chairman 1973) 
Secreta.ry, Smithsonian Institution 

Nancy Hanks 

Chairman, National Endowment 
for the Arts 

Ronald S. Berman 

Chairman, National Endowment 
for the Humanities 

John R. Ottina 

U. S. Commissioner of Education 
H. Guyford Stever 

Director, National Science Foundation 

L. Quincy Mumford 

Librarian of Congress 

J. Carter Brown 

Director, National Gallery of Art 
Chairman, Commission on Fine Arts 

James B. Rhoads 

Archivist of the United States 

John Richardson, Jr. 

Assistant Secretary of State 
for Educational and Cultural Affairs 
(Member designated by the 
Secretary of State) 

Ronald H. Walker 

Director, National Park Service 
(Member designated by the 
Secretary of Interior) 

Larry F. Roush 

Public Buildings Service Commissioner 
General Services Administration 

Lani Lattin, Executive Secretary 

First Federal Design Assembly 
Task Force Members 


J. Carter Brown, Task Force Chairman 
Chairman, Commission of Fine Arts 
Director, National Gallery of Art 

Lani Lattin, Project Coordinator 
First Federal Design Assembly 
Executive Secretary 
Federal Council on the Arts 
and the Humanities 

William Caldwell, President 
Society of Federal Artists 
and Designers 

Ivan Chermayeff, Designer 
Chermayeff and Geismar Associates 

M. Paul Friedberg, Landscape Architect 
Paul Friedberg and Associates 

Bill N. Lacy, Director 
Architectural + Environmental Arts 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Emily Malino, Interior Designer 

Peter Masters, President 
Federal Design Council 

Robert McKendry, Assistant 
Superintendent, Division of 
Typography and Design 
Government Printing Office 

Ziv Remez, Director 

Bureau of Recruiting and Examining 

Civil Service Commission 

Arthur Sampson, Acting Administrator 
General Services Administration 

J. C. Stokes 

President's Advisory Council 
on Management Improvement 

James Wines, President 
Sculpture in the Environment 

Richard Saul Wurman, Architect 
Murphy Levy Wurman 

Karel Yasko, Director 
Office of Fine Arts and 
Historic Preservation 
General Services Administration 

Stephen Barsony, Claire Beckhardt, 
Mary Boesche, William Bowman, 
Harry Carr, Leonard Carraciolo, John 
Christian, Nanine Clay, Maurice 
Clerman, Birch Coffey, Claire Cooper, 
Louis Craig, Andrew Euston, Ann 
Fischer, David Granahan, Dennis 
Green, David Horowitz, William 
Houseman, Richard Huber, Leo 
Inglesby, Rod Larson, Austin P. Leiand, 
Frank LoPresti, Sam Mantis, Joseph 
Marshall, Frank Matzke, Jeffery Miller, 
William Murtaugh, D. W. Orrick, Alvin 
Palmer, Gerald Pavy, Jerome 
Perlmutter, Arnold Prima, James Reber, 
Claire Reiniger, Dwight Retti, Walter 
Roth, Mack Rowe, Steven Saliga, 
Barbara Schneep, Kent Slepicka, Sam 
Sloan, Walter Sobel, Robert Southee, 
Mayer Spivack, Jeanette Galambos 
Stone, Erma Striner, Howard Taylor, 
Dick Thomas, Jay Ver Lee, Ralph 
Warburton, Ruth Weinstock, Gary 
Wells, Stanley White, Sandra Williams. 

Photographs: page 5, National Park 
Service, William G. Vorpe, Aerial 
Photos of New England; 7, Graphics 
Three, William Maris, Jeremiah O. 
Bragstad; 8, William C. McDade; 
9, James Brett; 10, "FAA Aviation 
News", G. W. Van Leer & Associates; 
11, David B. Smith; 14 to 21, William 
C. McDade; 28 to 31 , William Maris; 
34 (top left), D. K. Miller; 38, Link 
Harper; 42, 43, James Brett; 44 to 46, 
Karl H. RIek; 47, Jeremiah 0. Bragstad; 
48, Hedrich Blessing; 49 (left), Hedrich 
Blessing; 50, courtesy of the Smith- 
sonian Institution; 51, Robert C. 
Lautman; 52 to 57, Ezra Stoller; 
61 , Charles R. Pearson; 67, William C. 
McDade; 68, (top), Nancy Rudolph; 70 
to 73, R. Wenkam; 74 to 77, Paul Ryan. 

This book printed by Albert H. Vela 
Company, New York, with type set by 
Leon Segal, Philadelphia. Book produc- 
tion by Wendy Byrne and Carol Dethloff. 

The Design Necessity 

Ivan Chermayeff 
Richard Saul Wurman 
Ralph Caplan 
Peter Bradford 

First Federal Design Assembly 
sponsored by the 
Federal Council on the Arts 
and the Humanities 

National Endowment for the ArtJ 

There should be no doubt that 
the Federal Government has an 
appropriate and critical role to 
play in encouraging better 

President Richard M. Nixon 

Federal Design Improvement 
Message, May 16, 1972 

As a ma|or clieni of design serv- 
ices, the Government has the 
opporlunily to call upon Ihe finest 
talents in the Nation to assist in 
ensuring the quality of Federal 
architecture and graphics. The 
National Endowment for the Arts 
and the National Council on the 
Arts endorses the purpose of the 
ederal Design Assembly to 
create an awareness of this op*- 
portunity among Government 
officials " 

Nancy Hanks 

Chairman, National Endowment 

for the Arts 

and Chairman, 

National Council on Ihe Arts 

AnnLially the hederal Govern- 
ment makes a substantial con- 
tribution to our physical and vis- 
ual environments. The Govern- 
ment builds more facilities, prints 
more materials and houses more 
employees than any other organ- 
ization in the Nation. It has, there- 
f-ore, an obligation to ensure that 
Its contributions to the environ- 
ment are well-conceived and 
thouqhtfullv desiqned." 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Chairman, Federal Council on 
the Arts and the Humanities 

This book of Federal case studies 
illustrates how design has de- 
monstrably affected the effi- 
ciency, economy, effectiveness 

projects including visual mate- 
rials, buildirrgs, interior spaces 
and the environment. It is in- 
tended to enhance the reader'^ 
understanding that design is 
essential to the performance of 
every program sponsored by the 

J. Carter Brown 

Chairman, First Federal 
Design Assembly Task F 
and Chairman, 
Commission of Fine Arts 
and Director, 
National Gallery of Art 

/ he Design Necess 
ceived and produce 
Federal Design Ass 
was the Governmer 

initial step 

raise design standards through- 
out all Federal agencies. It is 
directed mainly toward the Fed- 
eral administrator; however, it 
also provides a definition of de- 
sign — ideas and goals for design 
performance — that is equally 
crucial to thedesiqner. 

The lyilT Press 

Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 
Massachusetts 02142